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Longitudinal study of 2 cohorts of children selected in the second or third year of life to be extremely cautious and shy (inhibited) or fearless and outgoing (uninhibited) to unfamiliar events revealed preservation of these 2 behavioral qualities through the sixth year of life. Additionally, more of the inhibited children showed signs of activation in 1 or(More)
The initial behavioral reaction to unfamiliar events is a distinctive source of intraspecific variation in humans and other animals. Two longitudinal studies of 2-year-old children who were extreme in the display of either behavioral restraint or spontaneity in unfamiliar contexts revealed that by 7 years of age a majority of the restrained group were quiet(More)
Infants with an inhibited temperament tend to develop into children who avoid people, objects, and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, whereas uninhibited children spontaneously approach novel persons, objects, and situations. Behavioral and physiological features of these two temperamental categories are moderately stable from infancy into early(More)
"Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" is a temperamental construct reflecting the tendency to be shy, timid, and constrained in novel situations. Previous work has suggested that it may be associated with anxiety disorders in children. Psychopathology was assessed in children from a nonclinical sample originally identified as behaviorally inhibited or(More)
The ability to create and hold a mental schema of an object is one of the milestones in cognitive development. Developmental scientists have named the behavioral manifestation of this competence object permanence. Convergent evidence indicates that frontal lobe maturation plays a critical role in the display of object permanence, but methodological and(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors sought to examine psychopathological correlates of behavioral inhibition in young offspring of parents with panic disorder and/or major depression. METHOD Behavioral inhibition, determined by using standard laboratory observations, was assessed in four groups of children (age 2-6 years): 129 children of parents with both panic(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous work suggested that children of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia were likely to be classified as behaviorally inhibited and that behaviorally inhibited children were likely to develop anxiety disorders. Although these findings suggested that "behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" may be associated with risk for anxiety(More)
  • J Kagan
  • Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 1966
3rd-grade children previously classified as either reflective or impulsive were administered a serial learning task under 3 different conditions. After administration of 2 lists, 1 group was told their performance was poor, a 2nd was told that the next lists were difficult, and controls were given no special communication. Impulsive Ss in all groups(More)
The behavioral reactions to unfamiliar events are basic phenomena in all vertebrates. Four-month-old infants who show a low threshold to become distressed and motorically aroused to unfamiliar stimuli are more likely than others to become fearful and subdued during early childhood, whereas infants who show a high arousal threshold are more likely to become(More)