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Rice plants fed on by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, FAW) caterpillars emit a blend of volatiles dominated by terpenoids. These volatiles were highly attractive to females of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Microarray analysis identified 196 rice genes whose expression was significantly upregulated by FAW feeding, 18 of which encode metabolic(More)
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive species reducing the populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière, throughout the eastern United States. Systemic imidacloprid and horticultural oil are the primary chemicals used to control infestations of this invasive pest; however, the impact of these two chemicals on(More)
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect species dramatically reducing populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrieré, throughout the eastern United States. Systemic imidacloprid is one of the primary chemicals used to successfully control infestations of the hemlock woolly adelgid. The(More)
An assessment of the insect guild structure associated with immature and mature eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, at high and low elevations was made before the invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand), and elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris. Guild dynamics were determined among 243 insect species(More)
Nontarget feeding of Rhinocyllus conicus Fröelich and Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) on native North American thistles in the genus Cirsium has been documented. Some species of these native thistles have shown greater infestation levels of R. conicus in populations that are in close proximity to the target plant species, Carduus nutans L. In 2005 a study(More)
Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida). Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra) in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P.(More)
Using airborne signals to attract herbivore predators and parasitoids is an important strategy that plants use in defense against herbivorous insects. The volatiles involved in this indirect plant defense are often chemically complex and variable across species. We recently established rice as a model for studying the molecular and genomic basis of(More)
Rhinocyllus conicus Fröelich was introduced from Europe into North America as a biological control agent of the exotic weed Carduus nutans L. Concern exists over the feeding of this weevil on at least 25 species of native Cirsium thistles. Beginning in 2008, cage studies isolating adults of R. conicus on buds and flower heads of all eight thistle species(More)
Widespread mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, resulting from infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has occurred throughout the native range of eastern hemlock within the eastern United States. Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, is one of the primary chemical compounds used to(More)
American beech gaps in the southern Appalachian mountains are currently threatened by an insect-mediated disease complex known as beech bark disease. Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, or beech scale, a major component of beech bark disease, wounds trees through feeding on vascular tissue through the outer cambium. This feeding method leaves numerous wounds(More)