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The effects of Cd on the growth and distribution of Cd and mineral nutrients within plant tissues were investigated for Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings grown in mineral forest soil with increasing levels of Cd addition (0–100 mg kg−1). Approximately 20% of added Cd was found to be extractable from sandy loam forest soil. Root growth was less affected by Cd(More)
Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes(More)
Effects of Cd on growth and glucose utilisation of Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon subcaerulescens and Suillus bovinus were investigated in vitro in liquid culture. S. bovinus was the species most sensitive to Cd in terms of dry matter production and P. involutus was less sensitive than R. subcaerulescens. Greater production of hyphae of P. involutus than(More)
Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO(2), NO(2) and O(3) and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological(More)
This study investigated the distribution and diversity of epiphytes in London in relation to NO(x) using fine-scale atmospheric dispersion modelling. The survey recorded over 3000 epiphytes from 334 trees (Fraxinus excelsior) representing 74 lichen, 14 moss, 7 fungal and 3 algal species. There was a significant inverse relationship between diversity and(More)
Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs.(More)
129I is a potentially important radionuclide in safety assessments of proposed deep geological radioactive waste repositories due to its radiotoxicity, high mobility and long physical half-life (15.7 million years). In soils, iodine is present both in an inorganic form and in organohalide complexes, some of which are volatile under natural environmental(More)
Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus caledonium) on accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize grown in soil contaminated with different concentrations of atrazine were investigated in a series of pot experiments. Roots of mycorrhizal plants accumulated more atrazine than non-mycorrhizal roots. In contrast, atrazine accumulation in(More)
Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been shown to affect both the structure and the function of heathland ecosystems. Heathlands are semi-natural habitats and, as such, undergo regular management by mowing or burning. Different forms of management remove more or less nutrients from the system, so habitat management has the potential to mitigate some of the(More)
OPAL is an English national programme that takes scientists into the community to investigate environmental issues. Biological monitoring plays a pivotal role covering topics of: i) soil and earthworms; ii) air, lichens and tar spot on sycamore; iii) water and aquatic invertebrates; iv) biodiversity and hedgerows; v) climate, clouds and thermal comfort.(More)