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Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton(More)
CD4(+) follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) are essential for germinal center (GC) responses and long-lived antibody responses. Here we report that naive CD4(+) T cells deficient in the transcription factor Foxp1 'preferentially' differentiated into T(FH) cells, which resulted in substantially enhanced GC and antibody responses. We found that Foxp1 used(More)
We generated F-labeled antibody fragments for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using a sortase-mediated reaction to install a trans-cyclooctenefunctionalized short peptide onto proteins of interest, followed by reaction with a tetrazine-labeled-F-2-deoxyfluoroglucose (FDG). The method is rapid, robust, and site-specific (radiochemical yields >(More)
Patients deficient in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK8 have decreased numbers and impaired in vitro function of Tregs and make autoantibodies, but they seldom develop autoimmunity. We show that, similarly, Dock8-/- mice have decreased numbers and impaired in vitro function of Tregs but do not develop autoimmunity. In contrast, mice with(More)
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