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The cascade comprising Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a therapeutic target in human cancers with deregulated Ras signalling, which includes tumours that have inactivated the Nf1 tumour suppressor. Nf1 encodes neurofibromin, a GTPase-activating protein that terminates Ras signalling by(More)
Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, RasGRP and SOS, catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to SOS' allosteric pocket markedly increases SOS' activity establishing a positive feedback loop for SOS-mediated Ras activation. Integrating in silico and in vitro studies, we(More)
Ras GTPases are on/off switches regulating numerous cellular responses by signaling to various effector molecules. In T lymphocytes, Ras can be activated by two Ras exchange factors, SOS and RasGRP1, which are recruited through the adapters Grb2 and LAT and via the second-messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), respectively. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase(More)
Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T(More)
Many key biochemical reactions that mediate signal transduction in cells occur at the cell membrane, yet how the two-dimensional membrane environment influences the collective behavior of signaling networks is poorly understood. We study models of two topologically different signaling pathways that exhibit bistability, examining the effects of reduced(More)
CD28 plays a critical role in T cell immune responses. Although the kinase Akt has been shown to act downstream of CD28 in T helper (Th)1 cytokine induction, it does not induce Th2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4). We recently reported that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) partially corrects the defect in IL-4 production present in(More)
The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are(More)
Enhanced signaling by the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras is common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 (Rasgrp1 in mice) as a Ras activator that contributes to leukemogenesis. We found increased RasGRP1 expression in many(More)
RasGRP1 and SOS are Ras-specific nucleotide exchange factors that have distinct roles in lymphocyte development. RasGRP1 is important in some cancers and autoimmune diseases but, in contrast to SOS, its regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Activating signals lead to the membrane recruitment of RasGRP1 and Ras engagement, but it is unclear how(More)