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XTcf-3 is a maternally expressed Xenopus homolog of the mammalian HMG box factors Tcf-1 and Lef-1. The N-terminus of XTcf-3 binds to beta-catenin. Microinjection of XTcf-3 mRNA in embryos results in nuclear translocation of beta-catenin. The beta-catenin-XTcf-3 complex activates transcription in a transient reporter gene assay, while XTcf-3 by itself is(More)
The recent discovery that the HMG box transcription factor XTCF-3 is involved in early axis specification in Xenopus laevis (Molenaar, M., van de Wetering, M., Oosterwegel, M., Peterson-Maduro, J. Godsave, S., Korinek, V., Roose, J., Destree, O., Clevers, H., 1996. XTcf-3 transcription factor mediates beta-catenin-induced axis formation in Xenopus embryos.(More)
Ras activation is crucial for lymphocyte development and effector function. Both T and B lymphocytes contain two types of Ras activators: ubiquitously expressed SOS and specifically expressed Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP). The need for two activators is enigmatic since both are activated following antigen receptor stimulation. In(More)
The cascade comprising Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a therapeutic target in human cancers with deregulated Ras signalling, which includes tumours that have inactivated the Nf1 tumour suppressor. Nf1 encodes neurofibromin, a GTPase-activating protein that terminates Ras signalling by(More)
Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, RasGRP and SOS, catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to SOS' allosteric pocket markedly increases SOS' activity establishing a positive feedback loop for SOS-mediated Ras activation. Integrating in silico and in vitro studies, we(More)
ZAP-70, a Syk family cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), is required to couple the activated T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) to downstream signaling pathways. It contains two tandem SH2 domains that bind to phosphorylated TCR subunits and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The region connecting the SH2 domains with the kinase domain, termed interdomain B,(More)
Ras GTPases are on/off switches regulating numerous cellular responses by signaling to various effector molecules. In T lymphocytes, Ras can be activated by two Ras exchange factors, SOS and RasGRP1, which are recruited through the adapters Grb2 and LAT and via the second-messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), respectively. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase(More)
Oncogenic K-Ras proteins, such as K-Ras(G12D), accumulate in the active, guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformation and stimulate signaling through effector kinases. The presence of the K-Ras(G12D) oncoprotein at a similar abundance to that of endogenous wild-type K-Ras results in only minimal phosphorylation and activation of the canonical(More)
T lymphocytes play a key role in adaptive immunity and are activated by interactions of their T cell receptors (TCR) with peptides (p) derived from antigenic proteins bound to MHC gene products. The repertoire of T lymphocytes available in peripheral organs is tuned in the thymus. Immature T lymphocytes (thymocytes) interact with diverse endogenous peptides(More)
Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T(More)