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XTcf-3 is a maternally expressed Xenopus homolog of the mammalian HMG box factors Tcf-1 and Lef-1. The N-terminus of XTcf-3 binds to beta-catenin. Microinjection of XTcf-3 mRNA in embryos results in nuclear translocation of beta-catenin. The beta-catenin-XTcf-3 complex activates transcription in a transient reporter gene assay, while XTcf-3 by itself is(More)
Ras activation is crucial for lymphocyte development and effector function. Both T and B lymphocytes contain two types of Ras activators: ubiquitously expressed SOS and specifically expressed Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP). The need for two activators is enigmatic since both are activated following antigen receptor stimulation. In(More)
The recent discovery that the HMG box transcription factor XTCF-3 is involved in early axis specification in Xenopus laevis (Molenaar, M., van de Wetering, M., Oosterwegel, M., Peterson-Maduro, J. Godsave, S., Korinek, V., Roose, J., Destree, O., Clevers, H., 1996. XTcf-3 transcription factor mediates beta-catenin-induced axis formation in Xenopus embryos.(More)
Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, RasGRP and SOS, catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to SOS' allosteric pocket markedly increases SOS' activity establishing a positive feedback loop for SOS-mediated Ras activation. Integrating in silico and in vitro studies, we(More)
The cascade comprising Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a therapeutic target in human cancers with deregulated Ras signalling, which includes tumours that have inactivated the Nf1 tumour suppressor. Nf1 encodes neurofibromin, a GTPase-activating protein that terminates Ras signalling by(More)
Clonal deletion of autoreactive B cells is crucial for the prevention of autoimmunity, but the signaling mechanisms that regulate this checkpoint remain undefined. Here we characterize a previously unrecognized Ca(2+)-driven pathway for activation of the kinase Erk, which was proapoptotic and biochemically distinct from Erk activation induced by(More)
RasGRP proteins are activators of Ras and other related small GTPases by the virtue of functioning as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In vertebrates, four RasGRP family members have been described. RasGRP-1 through -4 share many structural domains but there are also subtle differences between each of the different family members. Whereas SOS(More)
ZAP-70, a Syk family cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), is required to couple the activated T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) to downstream signaling pathways. It contains two tandem SH2 domains that bind to phosphorylated TCR subunits and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The region connecting the SH2 domains with the kinase domain, termed interdomain B,(More)
Ras GTPases are on/off switches regulating numerous cellular responses by signaling to various effector molecules. In T lymphocytes, Ras can be activated by two Ras exchange factors, SOS and RasGRP1, which are recruited through the adapters Grb2 and LAT and via the second-messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), respectively. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase(More)
Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) deficiency causes autoimmune pathology in humans and mice and is crucial for the maintenance of B cell homeostasis. However, the mechanisms underlying autoimmune disease in PKCδ deficiency remain poorly defined. Here, we address the antigen-dependent and -independent roles of PKCδ in B cell development, repertoire selection, and(More)