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Shellfish from oyster farms in the Netherlands and imported from other European countries were examined for viral contamination. A method that allows sequence matching between noroviruses from human cases and shellfish was used. The samples of shellfish (n = 42) were analyzed using a semi-nested RT-PCR that had been optimized for detection of norovirus in(More)
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak,(More)
The 2007-2009 human Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands attracted attention due to its magnitude and duration. The current epidemic and the historical background of Q fever in The Netherlands are reviewed according to national and international publications. Seroprevalence studies suggest that Q fever was endemic in The Netherlands several decades before(More)
In this study, we investigated whether environmental swabs can be used to demonstrate the presence of norovirus in outbreak settings. First, a procedure was set up based on viral RNA extraction using guanidium isothiocyanate buffer and binding of nucleic acids to silica. Subsequently, environmental swabs were taken at 23 Dutch restaurants and four cruise(More)
In the Netherlands, there is an ongoing and unparalleled outbreak of Q fever. Rapid and reliable methods to identify patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are urgently needed. We evaluated the performance of different DNA extraction methods and real-time PCR assays that are in use in seven diagnostic or reference(More)
Real-time PCR shows the widespread presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in a broad range of commercially available milk and milk products. MLVA genotyping shows that this is the result of the presence of a predominant C. burnetii genotype in the dairy cattle population.
A method, including enrichment in Arcobacter Selective Broth (ASB) and isolation on semisolid Arcobacter Selective Medium (ASM) under aerobic conditions at 24 degrees C, is described for the isolation of Arcobacter from retail meat products. Selective agents used in ASB and ASM were cefoperazone, trimethoprim, piperacillin and cycloheximide. Arcobacters(More)
Novel mycolic acid–containing bacteria in the family Segniliparaceae fam. nov., including the genus Segniliparus gen. nov., with descriptions of Segniliparus rotundus sp. nov., and Segniliparus rugosus sp. nov. Abstract R2410. 6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial testing; sixteenth informa-tional(More)
The present paper summarises the investigation of two different outbreaks of milk-associated Campylobacter enteritis in the Netherlands. In 2005, after a school trip to a dairy farm, 22 out of a group of 34 children developed diarrhoeal illness and Campylobacterjejuni was cultured from the stool samples of 11 of the cases. The illness was found to be(More)