Jeroen H. J. Ensink

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BACKGROUND A third of the 2·5 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation live in India, as do two-thirds of the 1·1 billion practising open defecation and a quarter of the 1·5 million who die annually from diarrhoeal diseases. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a rural sanitation intervention, within the context of the Government of(More)
As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March 2000. Samples were characterized according to exposure to(More)
Even if drinking water of poor rural communities is obtained from a 'safe' source, it can become contaminated during storage in the house. To investigate the relative importance of this domestic domain contamination, a 5-week intervention study was conducted. Sixty-seven households in Punjab, Pakistan, were provided with new water storage containers(More)
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS Vegetables irrigated with untreated domestic wastewater were, at the time of harvest, analysed for the presence of the faecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and helminth eggs in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Vegetables from the same harvested batch were collected approximately 12 h later from the local market. RESULTS The survey found(More)
To evaluate the importance of public-domain transmission of pathogens in drinking-water, an intervention study was carried out by chlorinating the public water-supply system in a village in Pakistan. The water quality improved and reached a geometric mean of 3 Escherichia coli per 100 mL at the last standpipe of the water-supply system. Drinking-water(More)
Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three copro-microscopic techniques for helminth diagnosis: Kato-Katz, adhesive tape and FLOTAC. A total of 163 children from a peri-urban municipality near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, participated and submitted multiple stool samples and adhesive tapes. Ninety children supplied at least two stool samples and(More)
Indoor air pollution from the domestic use of biomass fuels by poor households in developing countries is known to be harmful to health, and efforts are being made to address this problem by changes in fuel type, stove technology, house design and fuel-use practices. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that smoke may play an important role by providing(More)
The health risks of wastewater use in agriculture were investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, by means of a cross-sectional study. The study showed an increased risk of intestinal nematode infection and hookworm infection, in particular, in wastewater farmers (OR = 31.4, 95% CI 4.1-243) and their children (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1-16) when compared(More)
2 Contents Acknowledgements 6 Acronyms 7 Executive Summary 8 1 Introduction 13 1.1 Aims of the WASH evidence paper 13 1.2 Interpreting the evidence on WASH 14 1.3 Review methods 15 2 Progress on WASH 19 2.1 Global progress 20 2.2 Regional progress 23 2.3 Disparities in progress and access 24 3 How WASH impacts health and well-being 29 3.1 Towards a(More)