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Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents have been proposed to underlie sensory neuronal hyperexcitability in acute inflammatory models, but their role in chronic models is unknown. Since no pharmacological tools to separate TTX-R currents are available, this study employs Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 null mice to evaluate these currents roles in a chronic(More)
Ghrelin is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that has been recently implicated in epilepsy. Animal studies performed to date indicate that ghrelin has anticonvulsant properties; however, its mechanism of anticonvulsant action is unknown. Here we show that the anticonvulsant effects of ghrelin are mediated via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). To our(More)
This study was the first to explore the potential role of the myostatin (GDF8) pathway in relation to muscle strength and estimated muscle cross-sectional area in humans using linkage analysis with a candidate gene approach. In young male sibs (n = 329) 11 polymorphic markers in or near 10 candidate genes from the myostatin pathway were genotyped. Muscle(More)
Abstract Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors have both antinociceptive and antihypersensitivity effects, although the precise mechanisms of action are still unclear. In this study, the modulatory role of CB2 receptors on the mesenteric afferent response to the endogenous immunogenic agent bradykinin (BK) was investigated. Mesenteric afferent recordings were(More)
Tumor cells in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival. Knowledge of the cells’ genetic make-up can help to guide targeted therapy. We evaluated the efficiency and quality of isolation and amplification of DNA from single circulating tumor cells (CTC). The efficiency of the procedure was determined by spiking blood(More)
Skeletal site-related differences in trabecular bone composition have been studied in autopsy samples from 63 individuals (age range 23-92 years). From each individual, bone samples were excised from the iliac crest, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and calcaneus. Samples were analyzed for their content of ash, calcium, collagen, extractable proteins,(More)
Irritable bowel syndrome is in part characterized by an increased sensitivity to colonic distension. Stress is an important trigger factor for symptom generation. We hypothesized that stress induces visceral hypersensitivity via mast cell degranulation and transient receptor ion channel 1 (TRPV1) modulation. We used the rat model of neonatal maternal(More)
Vagal afferent neurons are thought to convey primarily physiological information, whereas spinal afferents transmit noxious signals from the viscera to the central nervous system. To elucidate molecular identities for these different properties, we compared gene expression profiles of neurons located in nodose ganglia (NG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite numerous clinical trials, it is unknown whether ethnicity affects treatment response to cognitive enhancers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is convincing evidence of ethnic and genetic variability in drug metabolism. This article reviews the available data on ethnicity in clinical trials for AD to answer two questions: (1) what are the(More)
MOTIVATION In virology, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) opens many opportunities for studying viral quasi-species, e.g. in HIV-1- and HCV-infected patients. This is essential for understanding pathways to resistance, which can substantially improve treatment. Although MPS platforms allow in-depth characterization of sequence variation, their(More)