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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on function of neutrophils in acute liver failure (ALF). METHODS Neutrophil functions (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production; phagocytosis and killing; complement receptor expression) were determined simultaneously in 23 patients with ALF due to paracetamol(More)
OBJECTIVES Neutrophil function is defective in acute liver failure (ALF) and the in vitro ability of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to reverse these defects has been reported. The effects of administering G-CSF to ALF patients are presented in this study. DESIGN This was a prospective, phase I/II, open label, study. SETTING The liver(More)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is difficult to cultivate in liquid medium. Currently there are no liquid media, defined or undefined, that reliably permit growth of this bacterium from low inocula. Standard clinical laboratory broths may allow multiplication of some strains of gonococci from large inocula, but such media incorporate infusates, extracts or digests(More)
Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk from various infectious diseases, many of which can be prevented by immunizations that could reduce morbidity and mortality. However, it is not uncommon for children requiring transplantation to have received inadequate or no immunizations pre-transplant. Every effort should be made to immunize transplant(More)
BACKGROUND Vaginal lactobacilli protect the female genital tract by producing lactic acid, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide or a local immune response. In bacterial vaginosis, normal lactobacilli are replaced by an anaerobic flora and this may increase susceptibility to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a facultative anaerobe. Bacterial interference between vaginal(More)
The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in acute liver failure (ALF), in which infection is common, has not been studied. In this study, SIRS components were recorded on admission and during episodes of infection, in 887 ALF patients admitted to a single center during an 11-year period. Overall, 504 (56.8%) patients manifested a SIRS during their(More)
A prospective study of bacterial and fungal infections after liver transplantation in 284 adults was undertaken. One hundred seventy-five (62%) became infected; bacterial or fungal infections occurred in 159 (56%) and 36 (13%) patients, respectively. Gram-positive cocci, in particular Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, were the commonest(More)
To compare the efficacy of a selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial regimen in patients with fulminant liver failure, we classified 104 patients on reaching grade II encephalopathy as infected or non-infected. Patients who were infected were randomly assigned to receive IV cefuroxime (group 1) or selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial(More)
Hepatocyte transplantation has been investigated in patients with liver-based metabolic disorders and acute liver failure. We report the first use of hepatocyte transplantation in two brothers with severe inherited coagulation factor VII deficiency. Patient 1 received a total of 1.09x10(9) cryopreserved hepatocytes, and patient received 2.18x10(9) fresh and(More)
The increase since the mid 1980s in glycopeptide resistant enterococci (GRE) raised concerns about the limited options for antimicrobial therapy, the implications for ever-increasing numbers of immunocompromised hospitalised patients, and fuelled fears, now realised, for the transfer of glycopeptide resistance to more pathogenic bacteria, such as(More)