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X-linked lissencephaly and "double cortex" are allelic human disorders mapping to Xq22.3-Xq23 associated with arrest of migrating cerebral cortical neurons. We identified a novel 10 kb brain-specific cDNA interrupted by a balanced translocation in an XLIS patient that encodes a novel 40 kDa predicted protein named Doublecortin. Four double cortex/X-linked(More)
Long-range, directed migration is particularly dramatic in the cerebral cortex, where postmitotic neurons generated deep in the brain migrate to form layers with distinct form and function. In the X-linked dominant human disorder periventricular heterotopia (PH), many neurons fail to migrate and persist as nodules lining the ventricular surface. Females(More)
Although accurate long-distance neuronal migration is a cardinal feature of cerebral cortical development, little is known about control of this migration. The scrambler (scm) mouse shows abnormal cortical lamination that is indistinguishable from reeler. Genetic and physical mapping of scm identified yeast artificial chromosomes containing an exon of(More)
The relationship between biological diversity and ecological stability has fascinated ecologists for decades. Determining the generality of this relationship, and discovering the mechanisms that underlie it, are vitally important for ecosystem management. Here, we investigate how species richness affects the temporal stability of biomass production by(More)
A leading idea about how disturbances and other environmental fluctuations affect species diversity is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). The IDH states that diversity of competing species is, or should be expected to be, maximized at intermediate frequencies and/or intensities of disturbance or environmental change. I argue that the IDH has(More)
Resource competition is thought to drive divergence in resource use traits (character displacement) by generating selection favoring individuals able to use resources unavailable to others. However, this picture assumes nutritionally substitutable resources (e.g., different prey species). When species compete for nutritionally essential resources (e.g.,(More)
Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for(More)
Natural food webs are species-rich, but classical theory suggests that they should be unstable and extinction-prone. Asynchronous fluctuations in the densities of competing consumers can stabilize food web dynamics in constant environments. However, environmental fluctuations often synchronize dynamics in nature. Using the same 'diamond-shape' food web(More)
Many species of phytoplankton typically co-occur within a single lake, as do many zooplankton species (the "paradox of the plankton"). Long-term co-occurrence suggests stable coexistence. Coexistence requires that species be equally "fit" on average. Coexistence mechanisms can equalize species' long-term average fitnesses by reducing fitness differences to(More)
Spatially synchronized fluctuations in system state are common in physical and biological systems ranging from individual atoms to species as diverse as viruses, insects and mammals. Although the causal factors are well known for many synchronized phenomena, several processes concurrently have an impact on spatial synchrony of species, making their separate(More)