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This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol.(More)
ICD-9-coded chief complaints and diagnoses are a routinely collected source of data with potential for use in public health surveillance. We constructed two detectors of acute respiratory illness: one based on ICD-9-coded chief complaints and one based on ICD-9-coded diagnoses. We measured the classification performance of these detectors against the human(More)
A surge of development of new public health surveillance systems designed to provide more timely detection of outbreaks suggests that public health has a new requirement: extreme timeliness of detection. The authors review previous work relevant to measuring timeliness and to defining timeliness requirements. Using signal detection theory and decision(More)
We evaluated telephone triage (TT) data for public health early warning systems. TT data is electronically available and contains coded elements that include the demographics and description of a caller's medical complaints. In the study, we obtained emergency room TT data and after hours TT data from a commercial TT software and service company. We(More)
The National Retail Data Monitor receives data daily from 10,000 stores, including pharmacies, that sell health care products. These stores belong to national chains that process sales data centrally and utilize Universal Product Codes and scanners to collect sales information at the cash register. The high degree of retail sales data automation enables the(More)
During the 2001 AMIA Annual Symposium, the Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Emergency Medicine Working Group hosted the Roundtable on Bioterrorism Detection. Sixty-four people attended the roundtable discussion, during which several researchers discussed public health surveillance systems designed to enhance early detection of bioterrorism events. These(More)
The 2002 Olympic Winter Games were held in Utah from February 8 to March 16, 2002. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax release in October 2001, the need for bioterrorism surveillance during the Games was paramount. A team of informaticists and public health specialists from Utah and Pittsburgh implemented the Real-time(More)
Given the post September 11th climate of possible bioterrorist attacks and the high profile 2002 Winter Olympics in the Salt Lake City, Utah, we challenged ourselves to deploy a computer-based real-time automated biosurveillance system for Utah, the Utah Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance system (Utah RODS), in six weeks using our existing(More)
This paper summarizes the experience of the Real-Time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) project in collecting and analyzing free-text emergency department (ED) chief complaints. The technical approach involves real-time transmission of chief-complaint data as Health Level 7 messages from hospitals to a regional data center, where a Bayesian text(More)
The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that collects and analyzes daily sales data for over-the-counter (OTC) health-care products. NRDM collects sales data for selected OTC health-care products in near real time from >15,000 retail stores and makes them available to public health officials. NRDM is one of the first(More)