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Broad-scale variation in taxonomic richness is strongly correlated with climate. Many mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain these patterns; however, testable predictions that would distinguish among them have rarely been derived. Here, we examine several prominent hypotheses for climate–richness relationships, deriving and testing predictions based(More)
Aim We surveyed the empirical literature to determine how well six diversity hypotheses account for spatial patterns in species richness across varying scales of grain and extent. Location Worldwide. Methods We identified 393 analyses ('cases') in 297 publications meeting our criteria. These criteria included the requirement that more than one diversity(More)
We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (1) In-transformed richness is linearly associated with a(More)
Although there is no shortage of potential explanations for the large-scale patterns of biological diversity, the hypothesis that energy-related factors are the primary determinants is perhaps most extensively supported, especially in cold-temperate regions. By using unusually high-resolution biodiversity and environmental data that have not previously been(More)
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and(More)
Allen, A. P., J. F. Gillooly, and J. H. Brown. 2003. Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic-equivalence rule. Science 297:1545–1548. Brown, J. H., J. F. Gillooly, A. P. Allen, V. M. Savage, and G. B. West. 2004. Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85:1771–1789. Gelman, A., J. B. Carlin, and D. B. Rubin. 1995. Bayesian data(More)
Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. The most common methods for predicting the response of biodiversity to changing climate do not explicitly incorporate fundamental evolutionary and ecological processes that determine species responses to changing climate, such as reproduction, dispersal, and adaptation. We provide an overview of an(More)
The influence of regional and local processes on community structure is a major focus of ecology. Classically, ecologists have used local-regional richness regressions to evaluate the role of local and regional processes in determining community structure, an approach that has numerous flaws. Here, we implemented a novel trait-based approach that treats(More)
Anthropogenic global changes threaten species and the ecosystem services upon which society depends. Effective solutions to this multifaceted crisis need scientific responses spanning disciplines and spatial scales. Macroecology develops broad-scale predictions of species' distributions and abundances, complementing the frequently local focus of global(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria transmission rates in Africa can vary dramatically over the space of a few kilometres. This spatial heterogeneity reflects variation in vector mosquito habitat and presents an important obstacle to the efficient allocation of malaria control resources. Malaria control is further complicated by combinations of vector species that respond(More)