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Caspase-3 is a crucial component of the apoptotic machinery in many cell types. Here, we report the timescale of caspase-3 activation in single living cells undergoing apoptosis. This was achieved by measuring the extent of fluorescence resonance energy transfer within a recombinant substrate containing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) linked by a short(More)
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small GTP-binding proteins that are regulators of vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells [1]. ARNO is a member of the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ARFs which includes cytohesin-1 and GRP-1 [2] [3-5]. Members of this family contain a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain which, in the case(More)
It has been reported that in differentiated PC12 cells and neurons from the superior cervical ganglion and hippocampus, that the activation of the stress-activated protein kinases jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein (p38MAP) kinase is central to the induction of apoptosis by serum or neurotrophic factor withdrawal. Here we(More)
Stress-dependent regulation of cardiac action potential duration is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It is accompanied by an increased magnitude of the slow outward potassium ion current, I(Ks). KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits coassemble to form the I(Ks) channel. Mutations in either subunit cause long QT(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interacts with the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase, the tyrosine kinase domain of which has homology with the insulin receptor subfamily of protein kinases. This includes the conservation of three regulatory tyrosines (residues 670, 674, and 675) known to play a crucial role in signal transmission by the insulin(More)
The Na(+),glutamate cotransporter EAAT2 is expressed in astrocytes and clears glutamate from the synaptic cleft. EAAT2 dependent currrent is stimulated by the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1. Phosphorylation targets of SGK1 include the human phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase PIKfyve (PIP5K3). Nothing is known, however, on the role of(More)
Microalbuminuria is significant both as the earliest stage of diabetic nephropathy and as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in nondiabetic subjects, in whom it is associated with insulin resistance. The link between disorders of cellular insulin metabolism and albuminuria has been elusive. Here, we report using novel conditionally immortalized human(More)
The Na(+),Cl(-),creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) mediates concentrative cellular uptake of creatine into a wide variety of cells. Previous observations disclosed that SLC6A8 transport activity is enhanced by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at least partially through the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase isoforms SGK1 and SGK3. As SLC6A8 does(More)
OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BMI are mostly undertaken under the assumption that "kg/m(2) " is an index of weight fully adjusted for height, but in general this is not true. The aim here was to assess the contribution of common genetic variation to a adjusted version of that phenotype which appropriately accounts for covariation in(More)
BACKGROUND The activity of the protein kinase Akt is frequently dysregulated in cancer and is an important factor in the growth and survival of tumour cells. Akt activation involves the phosphorylation of two residues: threonine 308 (Thr308) in the activation loop and serine 473 (Ser473) in the C-terminal hydrophobic motif. Phosphorylation of Ser473 has(More)