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Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne(More)
The tick Ixodes ricinus is responsible for the transmission of a number of bacterial, protozoan and viral diseases to humans and animals in Europe and Northern Africa. Female I. ricinus from England, Switzerland and Italy have been found to harbour an intracellular alpha-proteobacterium, designated IricES1, within the cells of the ovary. IricES1 is the only(More)
Babesiosis is a zoonosis caused by tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Phylum Apicomplexa. The disease mostly occurs in the USA, but cases have also been reported in several European countries, in Egypt, India, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and South Africa. The main pathological event is lysis of erythrocytes resulting in haemolytic anaemia, which(More)
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the risk of B. burgdorferi s.1. (Bb)-transmission by I. ricinus-nymphs to a host (i) after different periods of feeding, and (ii) with regard to the particular method of tick removal. On each of 72 Mongolian gerbils 3 tick nymphs taken from a highly infected batch were allowed to feed in a small(More)
The analysis of different multi-host systems suggests that even hosts that are not capable of transmitting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) to the tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, or that are secondary reservoirs for these agents contribute to the intensity of transmission and to the overall risk of Lyme borreliosis, through the process of vector(More)
Lyme borreliosis, caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex, is the most commonly reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The non-specific nature of many of its clinical manifestations presents a diagnostic challenge and concise case definitions are essential for its satisfactory management. Lyme borreliosis(More)
The EU Concerted Action on Risk Assessment in Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB) has consulted other clinicians and scientists in Europe to produce case definitions of the principal manifestations of European Lyme borreliosis. These case definitions will not only be helpful in supporting its own research interests, but are also intended to assist other clinicians in(More)
A European multicenter study of immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis showed considerable variation in results obtained from tests with a panel of 227 serum samples. Six laboratories used different immunoblot methods, and a wide range of bands was detected in all the assays. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of data from(More)
Existing knowledge on reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was collated and reviewed and several species, particularly birds, were identified as reservoir competent. At the present time, 9 small mammals, 7 medium-sized mammals and 16 bird species, including passerines, sea birds and pheasants, appear to be capable of transmitting spirochaetes(More)
The abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) and the infection rate of ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in County Galway, Ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, Dama dama, and woodmice, Apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of I. ricinus(More)