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A distance measure for populations diverging by drift only is based on the coancestry coefficient theta, and three estimators of the distance D = -ln(1 - theta) are constructed for multiallelic, multilocus data. Simulations of a monoecious population mating at random showed that a weighted ratio of single-locus estimators performed better than an unweighted(More)
Recent evidence supports a negative association between anxiety and cognitive control. Given age-related reductions in some cognitive abilities and the relation of late life anxiety to cognitive impairment, this negative association may be particularly relevant to older adults. This critical review conceptualizes anxiety and cognitive control from cognitive(More)
The authors investigated the effect of neck dimension upon cervical range of motion. Data relating to 100 healthy subjects, aged between 20 and 40 years, were recorded with respect to age, gender and range of motion in three planes. Additionally, two widely used methods of measuring neck motion, chin-sternal distance and uniplanar goniometer, were assessed(More)
OBJECTIVE Primary spinal osteosarcomas are rare and aggressive neoplasms. Poor outcomes can occur, as obtaining marginal margins is technically demanding; further Enneking-appropriate en bloc resection can have significant morbidity. The goal of this study is to identify prognostic variables for local recurrence and mortality in surgically treated patients(More)
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bone lesions with annual incidences ranging from 1.4 to 3.2 cases per million people. Approximately, 10-30% of ABCs are found in the spine. Such lesions are traditionally treated with curettage or other intralesional techniques. Because ABCs can be locally aggressive, intralesional resection can be incomplete and(More)
STUDY DESIGN Review of the literature. OBJECTIVE Surgery and cement augmentation procedures are effective palliative treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases. Our objective is to systematically review the literature to describe the survival, prognostic factors, and clinical outcomes of surgery and cement augmentation procedures for breast cancer(More)
OBJECT A chordoma is an indolent primary spinal tumor that has devastating effects on the patient's life. These lesions are chemoresistant, resistant to conventional radiotherapy, and moderately sensitive to proton therapy; however, en bloc resection remains the preferred treatment for optimizing patient outcomes. While multiple small and largely(More)
OBJECTIVE Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare soft-tissue sarcomas. Resection is the mainstay of treatment and the most important prognostic factor. However, complete resection of spinal MPNSTs with tumor-free margins is challenging due to the likelihood of residual tumor cells. The objective of this study was to describe whether the(More)
OBJECT Clinical outcomes in patients with primary spinal osteochondromas are limited to small series and sporadic case reports. The authors present data on the first long-term investigation of spinal osteochondroma cases. METHODS An international, multicenter ambispective study on primary spinal osteochondroma was performed. Patients were included if they(More)