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A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the relation between the spiking of individual neurons and the aggregate electrical activity of neuronal ensembles as seen in local field potentials (LFPs). Because LFPs reflect both spiking activity and subthreshold events, this question is not simply one of data aggregation. Recording from 20 neurosurgical(More)
Psychological theories of memory posit that when people recall a past event, they not only recover the features of the event itself, but also recover information associated with other events that occurred nearby in time. The events surrounding a target event, and the thoughts they evoke, may be considered to represent a context for the target event, helping(More)
Although it is well established that remembering an item will bring to mind memories of other semantically related items (Bousfield, 1953), the neural basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. We studied how the similarity relations among items influence their retrieval by analyzing electrocorticographic recordings taken as 46 human neurosurgical(More)
While color vision mediated by rod photoreceptors in dim light is possible (Kelber & Roth, 2006), most animals, including humans, do not see in color at night. This is because their retinas contain only a single class of rod photoreceptors. Many of these same animals have daylight color vision, mediated by multiple classes of cone photoreceptors. We develop(More)
The neural patterns recorded during a neuroscientific experiment reflect complex interactions between many brain regions, each comprising millions of neurons. However, the measurements themselves are typically abstracted from that underlying structure. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets comprise a time series of(More)
In an unfamiliar environment, searching for and navigating to a target requires that spatial information be acquired, stored, processed, and retrieved. In a study encompassing all of these processes, participants acted as taxicab drivers who learned to pick up and deliver passengers in a series of small virtual towns. We used data from these experiments to(More)
The scale of functional magnetic resonance image data is rapidly increasing as large multi-subject datasets are becoming widely available and high-resolution scanners are adopted. The inherent low-dimensionality of the information in this data has led neuroscientists to consider factor analysis methods to extract and analyze the underlying brain activity.(More)
In this chapter we discuss the role of context in organizing episodic memories. We define context as slowly drifting information (i.e. information that persists over a relatively long time scale in the person's brain; for example, a representation of the person's location). First, we use the Temporal Context Model of memory search (Howard & Kahana, 2002) to(More)
—Recent work has revealed that cognitive processes are often reflected in patterns of functional connectivity throughout the brain (for review see [16]). However, examining functional connectivity patterns using traditional methods carries a substantial computational burden (of computing time and memory). Here we present a technique, termed Hierarchical(More)