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AIMS To examine changes in illicit drug consumption between peak holiday season (23 December-3 January) in Australia and a control period two months later in a coastal urban area, an inland semi-rural area and an island populated predominantly by vacationers during holidays. DESIGN Analysis of representative daily composite wastewater samples collected(More)
AIMS To discuss ethical issues that may arise in using WWA to monitor illicit drug use in the general population and in entertainment precincts, prisons, schools and work-places. METHOD Review current applications of WWA and identify ethical and social issues that may be raised with current and projected future uses of this method. RESULTS Wastewater(More)
AIMS To discuss the need to develop ethical guidelines for researchers using sewage epidemiology to monitor drug use in the general population and specific precincts, including prisons, schools and workplaces. METHOD Describe current applications of sewage epidemiology, identify potential ethical risks associated with this science, and identify key means(More)
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS Wastewater analysis provides a non-intrusive way of measuring drug use within a population. We used this approach to determine daily use of conventional illicit drugs [cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and emerging illicit psychostimulants (benzylpiperazine, mephedrone and methylone) in(More)
Wastewater analysis is a promising monitoring tool to estimate illicit drug consumption at the community level. The advantage of this technique over traditional surveys and other surveillance methods has been emphasized in recent studies. However, there are methodological challenges that can affect reliability. The objectives of this study were to(More)
Population size is crucial when estimating population-normalized drug consumption (PNDC) from wastewater-based drug epidemiology (WBDE). Three conceptually different population estimates can be used: de jure (common census, residence), de facto (all persons within a sewer catchment), and chemical loads (contributors to the sampled wastewater). De facto and(More)
Prison substance use is a major concern for prison authorities and the wider community. Australia has responded to this problem by implementing the National Corrections Drug Strategy. Across Australia, the true extent of prison substance use cannot be determined. As a result, the effectiveness of the interventions employed as part of this strategy cannot be(More)
This article counters arguments made by Bartels and Otlowski in 2010 regarding euthanasia. It suggests that the authors over-emphasised the importance of individual autonomy in its bearing on the euthanasia debate. Drawing on literature concerning elder abuse as well as the "mercy-killing" cases reviewed by Bartels and Otlowski, the article contends that(More)