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Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are thought to be involved in the control of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, it has not been possible to demonstrate a direct relation between CTL activity and plasma RNA viral load. Human leukocyte antigen-peptide tetrameric complexes offer a specific means to directly quantitate circulating(More)
Mining modern genomics for cancer therapies is predicated on weeding out "bystander" alterations (nonconsequential mutations) and identifying "driver" mutations responsible for tumorigenesis and/or metastasis. We used a direct in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to screen for genes that upon repression predispose mice to squamous cell carcinomas(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) plays an important role in the control of feeding and energy homeostasis. In contrast to other hypothalamic nuclei that are also known to regulate energy balance, there is a paucity of nucleus-specific marker genes for the VMH, limiting the application of molecular approaches for analyzing VMH information(More)
Little is known of the changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) after potent antiretroviral therapy. Using HLA/peptide tetrameric complexes, we show that after starting treatment, there are early rapid fluctuations in the HIV-1-specific CTL response which last 1 to 2 weeks. These fluctuations are(More)
The autonomic nervous system regulates fuel availability and energy storage in the liver, adipose tissue, and other organs; however, the molecular components of this neural circuit are poorly understood. We sought to identify neural populations that project from the CNS indirectly through multisynaptic pathways to liver and epididymal white fat in mice(More)
Recent advances in sequencing technology are making possible the application of large-scale genomic analyses to individualized care, both in wellness and disease. However, a number of obstacles remain before genomic sequencing can become a routine part of clinical practice. One of the more significant and underappreciated is the lack of consensus regarding(More)
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