Jeremy P Bradshaw

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Stimulation of T cell proliferation generally requires two signals: The first signal is provided by the T cell receptor binding to antigen, and the second signal or costimulus is provided by a different receptor-ligand interaction. In mouse and human, the CD28-B7 interaction has been identified as a source of costimulatory signals. We have identified a cell(More)
T cell costimulation by molecules on the antigen presenting cell (APC) is required for optimal T cell proliferation. The B7 molecule on APC binds the T lymphocyte receptor CD28, triggering increased interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and subsequent T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 is a predicted T cell membrane receptor homologous to CD28, which also binds the B7(More)
The specificity of T lymphocyte activation is determined by engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by peptide/major histocompatibility complexes expressed on the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Lacking costimulation by accessory molecules on the APC, T cell proliferation does not occur and unresponsiveness to subsequent antigenic stimulus is induced. The(More)
The pattern of changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in bovine oocytes after penetration by spermatozoa was determined. Dynamic video imaging, using Fura-2 as a probe for intracellular free calcium, showed that activation of oocytes by spermatozoa induced multiple transient increases in [Ca2+]i with a spike interval of 24.2 +/- 7.3 min,(More)
BACKGROUND Soluble Alzheimer's Abeta oligomers autoinsert into neuronal cell membranes, contributing to the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and elevated serum cholesterol is a risk factor for AD, but the reason is unknown. We investigated potential connections between these two observations at the membrane level by testing the hypothesis that(More)
Annexins constitute a family of calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins and can be classified into two groups, depending on the length of the N-terminal domain unique for each individual annexin. The N-terminal domain of annexin A1 can adopt an alpha-helical conformation and has been implicated in mediating the membrane aggregation behavior of this(More)
The small G protein adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1) is activated by cell membrane binding of a self-folding N-terminal domain. We present a model of the human ARF1 N-terminal peptide in planar lipid bilayers, determined from neutron lamellar diffraction and circular dichroism data with molecular modelling. This amphipathic domain lies at(More)
The aim of this study is to elucidate how the Isatidis Radix ( bǎn lán gēn) tonic, as an aqueous mixture of hundreds of compositions, interrupts the infection of influenza viruses to their host cells. The efficacy of the tonic was evaluated and expressed as cell proliferation rate and plaque reduction rate in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, against(More)
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