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OBJECTIVES Self-critical people, compared with those who self-reassure, are at increased risk of psychopathology. However, there has been little work on the different forms and functions of these self-experiences. This study developed two self-report scales to measure forms and functions of self-criticism and self-reassurance and explore their relationship(More)
There is good evidence to suggest that depression is highly correlated with perceptions of low rank and subordinate status (i.e. feeling inferior, low-self esteem, feeling that others look down on the self, and submissive behaviour). However, it is possible for people to feel inferior and anxious, and behave submissively but not necessarily be depressed.(More)
Three experiments are reported that used eye-movement tracking to investigate the inspection-time effect predicted by Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic account of the Watson selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are based on the operation relevance -determining heuristics, whilst analytic processing only rationalizes selections. As(More)
We examined drinking behaviors (frequency of use, quantity of use, and frequency of binge drinking) and correlates of frequency of use and binge drinking in a representative sample of previously deployed personnel from the US military (n = 1887). Drinking behaviors were compared with a matched sample of adults in U.S. households (n = 17,533). Comparable(More)
The present study examined how cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses varied in response to an acute challenge in medical students under exam stress versus those not under exam stress. One hundred and twenty-nine medical students were randomly assigned to undertake a CO2 inhalation test either prior to an examination period (exam group) or during a(More)
BACKGROUND Auditory hallucinations in psychosis often contain critical evaluations of the voice-hearer (for example, attacks on self-worth). A voice-hearer's experience with their dominant voice is a mirror of their social relationships in general, with experiences of feeling low in rank to both voices and others being associated with depression. However,(More)
BACKGROUND This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. METHODS Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal reasoning(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for reading-delayed children in Year-1 classes. METHODS A sample (N = 77) of children drawn from 14 schools representing those with the weakest reading skills were randomly allocated to one of two groups. A 20-week intervention group received the intervention for two consecutive 10-week(More)
BACKGROUND Mental mechanisms have evolved to enable animals (and humans) to be able to function in various social roles. It is suggested that the nature and functions of the mental mechanisms that enable animals to act as a hostile-dominant or threatened-subordinate can be distinguished. It is further suggested these can be internally activated and 'play(More)
This study examined the relationship between indices of self-reported emotional distress and absolute versus change in cortisol levels. Fifty-four women attending a diagnostic breast clinic completed scales measuring stress, anxiety and depression and provided five saliva samples over the course of a single day for the measurement of cortisol. No(More)