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There is good evidence to suggest that depression is highly correlated with perceptions of low rank and subordinate status (i.e. feeling inferior, low-self esteem, feeling that others look down on the self, and submissive behaviour). However, it is possible for people to feel inferior and anxious, and behave submissively but not necessarily be depressed.(More)
Three experiments are reported that used eye-movement tracking to investigate the inspection-time effect predicted by Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic account of the Watson selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are based on the operation relevance -determining heuristics, whilst analytic processing only rationalizes selections. As(More)
OBJECTIVES Self-critical people, compared with those who self-reassure, are at increased risk of psychopathology. However, there has been little work on the different forms and functions of these self-experiences. This study developed two self-report scales to measure forms and functions of self-criticism and self-reassurance and explore their relationship(More)
We examined drinking behaviors (frequency of use, quantity of use, and frequency of binge drinking) and correlates of frequency of use and binge drinking in a representative sample of previously deployed personnel from the US military (n = 1887). Drinking behaviors were compared with a matched sample of adults in U.S. households (n = 17,533). Comparable(More)
BACKGROUND Auditory hallucinations in psychosis often contain critical evaluations of the voice-hearer (for example, attacks on self-worth). A voice-hearer's experience with their dominant voice is a mirror of their social relationships in general, with experiences of feeling low in rank to both voices and others being associated with depression. However,(More)
BACKGROUND This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. METHODS Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal reasoning(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for reading-delayed children in Year-1 classes. METHODS A sample (N = 77) of children drawn from 14 schools representing those with the weakest reading skills were randomly allocated to one of two groups. A 20-week intervention group received the intervention for two consecutive 10-week(More)
BACKGROUND Mental mechanisms have evolved to enable animals (and humans) to be able to function in various social roles. It is suggested that the nature and functions of the mental mechanisms that enable animals to act as a hostile-dominant or threatened-subordinate can be distinguished. It is further suggested these can be internally activated and 'play(More)
This study used longitudinal data collected from two trauma-exposed samples, survivors of community violence (N = 294) and wildfire evacuees (N = 234), to examine a key claim underlying a proposed reformulation of the symptom structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This theory, which we term the PTSD-dysphoria model, posits that 8 of 17 symptoms(More)
The effects of an exploratory, home-based emotional disclosure intervention on psychological and physiological outcomes were assessed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were randomly assigned to a disclosure group (n = 19) in which they wrote/talked about traumatic personal experiences, or to a control group (n = 15) in which they wrote/talked(More)