Jeremy M. Wolfe

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An important component of routine visual behavior is the ability to find one item in a visual world filled with other, distracting items. This ability to performvisual search has been the subject of a large body of research in the past 15 years. This paper reviews the visual search literature and presents a model of human search behavior. Built upon the(More)
Subjects searched sets of items for targets defined by conjunctions of color and form, color and orientation, or color and size. Set size was varied and reaction times (RT) were measured. For many unpracticed subjects, the slopes of the resulting RT X Set Size functions are too shallow to be consistent with Treisman's feature integration model, which(More)
selective processes in the nervous system. We can attend to a specific task, attend to tactile stimuli in preference to auditory, attend to a specific visible stimulus that is 2° to the left of fixation, and so on. This article is restricted to consideration of visual attention. Even within vision, there is good evidence that attention has its effects in(More)
Treisman's Feature Integration Theory and Julesz's Texton Theory explain many aspects of visual search. However, these theories require that parallel processing mechanisms not be used in many visual searches for which they would be useful, and they imply that visual processing should be much slower than it is. Most importantly, they cannot account for(More)
VOL. 9, NO. 1, JANUARY 1998 Copyright © 1998 American Psychological Society 33 Abstract— In a typical visual search experiment, observers look through a set of items for a designated target that may or may not be present. Reaction time (RT) is measured as a function of the number of items in the display (set size), and inferences about the underlying search(More)
How should a visual search task be terminated when no target is found? Such searches could end after a serial search through all items, but blank trials in many tasks are terminated too quickly for that to be plausible. This paper proposes a solution based on Wolfe's (1994) Guided Search model. The probability that each item is a target is computed in(More)
In visual search tasks, observers look for a target stimulus among distractor stimuli. A visual search asymmetry is said to occur when a search for stimulus A among stimulus B produces different results from a search for B among A. Anne Treisman made search asymmetries into an important tool in the study of visual attention. She argued that it was easier to(More)
Observers, searching for targets among distractor items, guide attention with a mix of top-down information--based on observers' knowledge--and bottom-up information--stimulus-based and largely independent of that knowledge. There are 2 types of top-down guidance: explicit information (e.g., verbal description) and implicit priming by preceding targets(More)
Most laboratory visual search tasks involve many searches for the same target, while in the real world we typically change our target with each search (e.g. find the coffee cup, then the sugar). How quickly can the visual system be reconfigured to search for a new target? Here observers searched for targets specified by cues presented at different SOAs(More)