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Little is known about host factors necessary for retroviral virion assembly or uncoating. We have previously shown that the principal structural protein of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, the Gag polyprotein, binds the cyclophilin peptidyl-prolyl isomerases; cyclophilins catalyse a rate-limiting step in protein folding and protect cells from heat(More)
Retroviral Gag protein is capable of directing the assembly of virion particles independent of other retroviral elements and plays an important role early in the infection of a cell. Using the GAL4 two hybrid system, we screened a cDNA expression library and identified two host proteins, cyclophillins (CyPs) A and B, which interact specifically with the(More)
BACKGROUND Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by SIVSM, a lentivirus endemic to the West African sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). HIV-2 and SIVMAC, zoonoses resulting from SIVSM transmission to humans or Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), also encode Vpx. In myeloid cells, Vpx promotes reverse transcription and transduction by these viruses.(More)
TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but(More)
Certain post-translational modifications to histones, including H3K4me3, as well as binding sites for the transcription factor STAT1, predict the site of integration of exogenous gamma-retroviruses with great accuracy and cell-type specificity. Statistical methods that were used to identify chromatin features that predict exogenous gamma-retrovirus(More)
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and therefore their replication completely depends on host cell factors. In case of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive-strand RNA virus that in the majority of infections establishes persistence, cyclophilins are considered to play an important role in RNA replication. Subsequent to the observation that(More)
Host cells impose a broad range of obstacles to the replication of retroviruses. Tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) impedes viral release by retaining newly budded HIV-1 virions on the surface of cells. HIV-1 Vpu efficiently counteracts this restriction. Here, we show that HIV-1 Vpu induces the depletion of tetherin from cells. We demonstrate(More)
TRIM5 is a potent retrovirus inhibitor that targets viruses bearing particular capsid (CA) residues. In most primate species, retroviral restriction requires the C-terminal SPRY domain unique to the α-isoform of TRIM5, but the mechanism by which susceptible viruses are recognized and targeted for restriction is unknown. Here we show that TRIM5α binds(More)
Despite intensive investigation the mechanism by which HIV-1 reaches the host cell nucleus is unknown. TNPO3, a karyopherin mediating nuclear entry of SR-proteins, was shown to be required for HIV-1 infectivity. Some investigators have reported that TNPO3 promotes HIV-1 nuclear import, as would be expected for a karyopherin. Yet, an equal number of(More)
All retroviruses synthesize essential proteins via alternatively spliced mRNAs. Retrovirus genera, though, exploit different mechanisms to coordinate the synthesis of proteins from alternatively spliced mRNAs. The best studied of these retroviral, post-transcriptional effectors are the trans-acting Rev protein of lentiviruses and the cis-acting constitutive(More)