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Androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors are used to treat multiple human diseases, including hirsutism, benign prostatic hypertrophy, and prostate cancer, but all available anti-androgens target only ligand binding, either by reduction of available hormone or by competitive antagonism. New strategies are needed, and could have an important impact on therapy. One(More)
The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed,(More)
Our recent studies have shown that overexpression of aromatase results in increased tissue estrogenic activity and induction of hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions in mammary glands, and gynecomastia and testicular cancer in male aromatase transgenic mice. Our studies also have shown that aromatase overexpression-induced changes in mammary glands can be(More)
Aromatase transgenic mice exhibit hyperplastic and dysplastic changes, attesting to the importance of local estrogen in breast carcinogenesis. These mice also show increased levels of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERalpha, ERbeta) suggesting that this receptor may play an important role in the initiation of estrogen-mediated mammary hyperplasia(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-limiting lung disease with considerable impact on patients and carers as the disease progresses. Currently few treatments are available. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of available treatments for IPF. Systematic reviews of clinical effectiveness, quality of life and cost effectiveness(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a life-limiting lung disease that generally affects people over 60 years old. The main symptoms are shortness of breath and cough, and as the disease progresses there is a considerable impact on day-to-day life. Few treatments are currently available. OBJECTIVES To conduct a systematic review of clinical(More)
PURPOSE Recent advances in immunotherapy of advanced human cancers underscored the need to address and eliminate tumor immune evasion. The myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important inhibitors of T-cell responses in solid tumors, such as prostate cancers. However, targeting MDSCs proved challenging due to their phenotypic heterogeneity. (More)
1. The peculiar structure of the stomatopod eye requires it to make complicated movements. These include slow ‘scans’, which relate to the animal’s colour vision system, as well as faster ‘saccades’. 2. The myology of the eyecup is investigated and shown to consist of eight individual muscles which are divided, on kinematic grounds, into six functional(More)
We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized controlled(More)