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Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the focus of intensive efforts worldwide directed not only at elucidating their nature and unique properties but also developing cell-based therapies for a diverse range of diseases. More than three decades have passed since the original formulation of the concept, revolutionary at the time, that multiple connective tissues(More)
The mechanical properties of craniofacial sutures have rarely been investigated. Three facial sutures-the pre-maxillomaxillary (PMS), the nasofrontal (NFS), and the zygomaticotemporal (ZTS)-and their corresponding sutural mineralization fronts in 8 young New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to nano-indentation with atomic force microscopy as a test of(More)
Whereas the growth of the cranial base cartilage is thought to be regulated solely by genes, epiphyseal growth plates are known to respond to mechanical stresses. This disparity has led to our hypothesis that chondrocyte proliferation is accelerated by mechanical stimuli above natural growth. Two-Newton tensile forces with static and cyclic waveforms were(More)
A National Institutes of Health sponsored workshop "Bone Tissue Engineering and Regeneration: From Discovery to the Clinic" gathered thought leaders from medicine, science, and industry to determine the state of art in the field and to define the barriers to translating new technologies to novel therapies to treat bone defects. Tissue engineering holds(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors of all connective tissue cells. In adults of multiple vertebrate species, MSCs have been isolated from bone marrow (BM) and other tissues, expanded in culture, and differentiated into several tissue-forming cells such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, tendon, liver, kidney, heart, and even brain cells. Recent(More)
BACKGROUND An entire articular condyle engineered from stem cells may provide an alternative therapeutic approach to total joint replacement. This study describes our continuing effort to optimize the chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells toward engineering articular condyles in vivo. METHODS Primary rat bone-marrow(More)
Uniform design of synovial articulations across mammalian species is challenged by their common susceptibility to joint degeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of creating human-shaped articular condyles by rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated in a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-based(More)
Growth and development is the net result of environmental modulation of genetic inheritance. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and fibrogenic cells: the first 2 are chiefly responsible for endochondral ossification, and the last 2 for sutural growth. Cells are influenced by genes and environmental cues to migrate, proliferate,(More)
Mammalian skeletal motion is made possible by synovial joints. Widespread suffering from arthritis and joint injuries has motivated recent effort to regenerate a stem-cell-driven synovial joint condyle implantable in total joint replacement. A single adult stem cell lineage, mesenchymal stem cells, differentiate to form all components of a synovial joint.(More)