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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the focus of intensive efforts worldwide directed not only at elucidating their nature and unique properties but also developing cell-based therapies for a diverse range of diseases. More than three decades have passed since the original formulation of the concept, revolutionary at the time, that multiple connective tissues(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors of all connective tissue cells. In adults of multiple vertebrate species, MSCs have been isolated from bone marrow (BM) and other tissues, expanded in culture, and differentiated into several tissue-forming cells such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, tendon, liver, kidney, heart, and even brain cells. Recent(More)
Uniform design of synovial articulations across mammalian species is challenged by their common susceptibility to joint degeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of creating human-shaped articular condyles by rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated in a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-based(More)
Craniofacial sutures are soft connective-tissue joints between mineralized skull bones. Suture mechanobiology refers to the understanding of how mechanical stimuli modulate sutural growth. This review's hypothesis is that novel mechanical stimuli can effectively modulate sutural growth. Exogenous forces with static, sinusoidal, and square waveforms induce(More)
BACKGROUND A common approach for tissue regeneration is cell delivery, for example by direct transplantation of stem or progenitor cells. An alternative, by recruitment of endogenous cells, needs experimental evidence. We tested the hypothesis that the articular surface of the synovial joint can regenerate with a biological cue spatially embedded in an(More)
Fibroblasts are ubiquitous cells that demonstrate remarkable diversity. However, their origin and pathways of differentiation remain poorly defined. Here, we show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) is sufficient to induce human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) to differentiate into fibroblasts. CTGF-stimulated(More)
Soft tissue augmentation is a widespread practice in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The objective of the present study was to engineer adipose tissue constructs with predefined shape and dimensions, potentially utilizable in soft tissue augmentation and reconstruction, by encapsulating adult stem cell-derived adipogenic cells in a biocompatible(More)
A National Institutes of Health sponsored workshop "Bone Tissue Engineering and Regeneration: From Discovery to the Clinic" gathered thought leaders from medicine, science, and industry to determine the state of art in the field and to define the barriers to translating new technologies to novel therapies to treat bone defects. Tissue engineering holds(More)
Tooth infections or injuries involving dental pulp are treated routinely by root canal therapy. Endodontically treated teeth are devitalized, susceptible to re-infections, fractures, and subsequent tooth loss. Here, we report regeneration of dental-pulp-like tissue by cell homing and without cell transplantation. Upon in vivo implantation of endodontically(More)
Whereas the growth of the cranial base cartilage is thought to be regulated solely by genes, epiphyseal growth plates are known to respond to mechanical stresses. This disparity has led to our hypothesis that chondrocyte proliferation is accelerated by mechanical stimuli above natural growth. Two-Newton tensile forces with static and cyclic waveforms were(More)