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Foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella remain a pressing public health concern. We recently detected a large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 14b affecting more than 30 patients in our hospital. This outbreak was linked to community, national and European-wide cases. Hospital patients with Salmonella are at high risk, and require a(More)
Influenza causes substantial mortality in high-risk groups despite targeted vaccination programmes. This paper considers whether it is worth vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) against influenza to protect high-risk patients in a series of systematic reviews and an economic evaluation. Eighteen studies are included. Vaccination was highly effective in(More)
The largest outbreak of the zoonotic disease Q fever recorded in the United Kingdom (UK) occurred in Birmingham in 1989. One hundred and forty-seven cases were identified, 125 of whom were males, and 130 of whom were between 16 and 64 years of age. Fewer cases of Asian ethnic origin were observed than expected (p < 0.01), and more smokers (p < 0.005). A(More)
We present a systematic review of the effectiveness of vaccinating healthy children to protect others. Primary studies were identified by searching standard electronic databases, internet sites, trials registers and citation lists to January 2004 and subjected to critical appraisal. Eight randomised controlled trials, three community studies and three(More)
OBJECTIVES To measure trends in antibiotic prescribing in UK primary care in relation to nationally recommended best practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS A descriptive study linking individual patient data on diagnosis and prescription in a large primary care database, covering 537 UK general practices during 1995-2011. RESULTS The proportion of cough/cold(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly and those with certain chronic diseases. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for individuals in at-risk groups, but rates of vaccination are particularly low in children with high-risk conditions (HRCs). OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review of(More)
Between 1 August and 15 September 2000, 361 cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, spectinomycin and tetracycline (R-type ACSSuSpT), were identified in England and Wales residents. Molecular typing of 258 isolates of S. Typhimurium DT104 R-type(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to assess antibiotic prescribing within the United Kingdom for three of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee recommendations 'four things which could be done'. METHODS We conducted a retrospective survey of morbidity and antibiotic prescribing data between 1993 and 2001 using the national General Practice Research(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Birmingham, UK, by ethnic group and to assess the implications of the findings for future trends in TB in the UK. METHODS Retrospective review of records of all patients notified with TB in Birmingham during 1989-1994. RESULTS The decline in TB notifications in Birmingham halted and then(More)