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The psychometric function relates an observer's performance to an independent variable, usually some physical quantity of a stimulus in a psychophysical task. This paper, together with its companion paper (Wichmann & Hill 2000), describes an integrated approach to (1) fitting psychometric functions, (2) assessing the goodness-of-fit, and (3) providing(More)
A major challenge in applying machine learning methods to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) is to overcome the possible nonstationarity in the data from the datablock the method is trained on and that the method is applied to. Assuming the joint distributions of the whitened signal and the class label to be identical in two blocks, where the whitening is(More)
BACKGROUND Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated these fatty acids in Nordic cow's milk and whether their supply from milk associates with type 2 diabetes prevalence and CHD mortality in the Nordic countries. METHODS Samples (N = 84) of consumers' milk were collected in five Nordic countries four(More)
Brain-computer interface (BCI) research aims to construct systems that could allow a paralysed person to communicate, by decoding the user’s intentions directly from brain signals. Currently, there is still a gap between BCI’s proven success with healthy subjects, (and even subjects with restricted motor control) and the lack of cases in which BCI has been(More)
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be used for communication in writing without muscular activity or for learning to control seizures by voluntary regulation of brain signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG). Three of five patients with epilepsy were able to spell their names with electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals derived from motor-related areas(More)
82Rb is an ultra-short-lived positron emitter used for myocardial blood flow quantification with PET imaging. The aim of this study was to quantify the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in patients with coronary disease and in healthy normal volunteers. A total of 30 subjects, 26 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and four(More)
From the 1980s movie Firefox to the more recent Avatar, popular science fiction has speculated about the possibility of a persons thoughts being read directly from his or her brain. Such braincomputer interfaces (BCIs) might allow people who are paralyzed to communicate with and control their environment, and there might also be applications in military(More)
This paper focuses on ethical aspects of BCI, as a research and a clinical tool, that are challenging for practitioners currently working in the field. Specifically, the difficulties involved in acquiring informed consent from locked-in patients are investigated, in combination with an analysis of the shared moral responsibility in BCI teams, and the(More)
Recently ontologies have drawn much attention from research communities. However, the advantage of using ontologies for knowledge-driven intelligent query answering is yet to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the use of ontologies for guiding XML query relaxation and propose a practical approach which incorporates WordNet ontology with free(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients in the completely locked-in state (CLIS), due to, for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no longer possess voluntary muscle control. Assessing attention and cognitive function in these patients during the course of the disease is a challenging but essential task for both nursing staff and physicians. APPROACH An(More)