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We explore model-based techniques of phylogenetic tree inference exercising Markov invariants. Markov invariants are group invariant polynomials and are distinct from what is known in the literature as phylogenetic invariants, although we establish a commonality in some special cases. We show that the simplest Markov invariant forms the foundation of the(More)
It is possible to consider stochastic models of sequence evolution in phylogenetics in the context of a dynamical tensor description inspired from physics. Approaching the problem in this framework allows for the well developed methods of mathematical physics to be exploited in the biological arena. We present the tensor description of the homogeneous(More)
The purpose of this article is to show how the isotropy subgroup of leaf permutations on binary trees can be used to systematically identify tree-informative invariants relevant to models of phylogenetic evolution. In the quartet case, we give an explicit construction of the full set of representations and describe their properties. We apply these results(More)
Recent work has discussed the importance of multiplicative closure for the Markov models used in phylogenetics. For continuous-time Markov chains, a sufficient condition for multiplicative closure of a model class is ensured by demanding that the set of rate-matrices belonging to the model class form a Lie algebra. It is the case that some well-known Markov(More)
It is known that the Kimura 3ST model of sequence evolution on phylogenetic trees can be extended quite naturally to arbitrary split systems. However, this extension relies heavily on mathematical peculiarities of the associated Hadamard transformation, and providing an analogous augmentation of the general Markov model has thus far been elusive. In this(More)
Distance based algorithms are a common technique in the construction of phylogenetic trees from taxonomic sequence data. The first step in the implementation of these algorithms is the calculation of a pairwise distance matrix to give a measure of the evolutionary change between any pair of the extant taxa. A standard technique is to use the log det formula(More)
Though algebraic geometry over C is often used to describe the closure of the tensors of a given size and complex rank, this variety includes tensors of both smaller and larger rank. Here we focus on the n × n × n tensors of rank n over C, which has as a dense subset the orbit of a single tensor under a natural group action. We construct polynomial(More)
keywords: phylogenetics, model selection, General Time Reversible (GTR) model, closure The general time-reversible (GTR) model (Tavaré, 1986) has been the workhorse of molecular phylogenetics for the last decade. GTR sits at the top of the ModelTest hierarchy of models (Posada & Crandall, 1998) and, usually with the addition of invariant sites and a gamma(More)
A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out(More)
In their 2008 and 2009 articles, Sumner and colleagues introduced the "squangles"-a small set of Markov invariants for phylogenetic quartets. The squangles are consistent with the general Markov (GM) model and can be used to infer quartets without the need to explicitly estimate all parameters. As the GM model is inhomogeneous and hence nonstationary, the(More)