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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by the loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function because of a CGG repeat expansion (> 200 repeats) in the gene. The molecular mechanism(s) linking loss of FMR1 function to the molecular pathology and cognitive/behavioral disability remain unclear. Given the critical role of(More)
Leptin signaling has received considerable attention in the Alzheimer disease (AD) field. Within the past decade, the peptide hormone has been demonstrated to attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells and to be modulated by amyloid-β. Moreover, a role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis within the hippocampus has been shown in animal models. To(More)
Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is a ubiquitous 928-amino acid cell cycle regulatory molecule with diverse biologic activities. One critical function of pRb is the control of the G1-to-S phase checkpoint of the cell cycle. In the hypophosphorylated state, pRb suppresses the activity of E2F transcription factors thereby inhibiting transcription of cell(More)
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an unusual histological pattern of non-invasive neoplastic disease of the breast occurring predominantly in women aged between 40 and 50 years. LCIS is frequently multicentric and bilateral, and there is evidence that it is associated with an elevated familial risk of breast cancer. Although women with LCIS suffer an(More)
OBJECTIVE Because hypothermia enhances human tolerance for cerebral ischemia, profound hypothermia is induced in many centers so that the circulation can be arrested while clips are applied to high-risk giant cerebral aneurysms. Brain temperature is measured directly with an intracerebral probe that avoids the uncertainty of surrogate monitoring. However,(More)
Tryptophan metabolism, through the kynurenine pathway, produces neurotoxic intermediates that are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, oxidative stress via 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and its cleaved product 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) significantly damages neuronal tissue and may potentially contribute to a cycle of(More)
Giant aneurysm surgery continues to be a technically difficult task with high operative morbidity. Recent advances in cardiac surgery have fueled interest in the technique of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for the treatment of giant and complex intracranial aneurysms. Fourteen patients with giant intracranial aneurysms operated on with the technique of(More)
The first wave of cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed tens of independent loci marked by common variants of unknown or likely no functional significance that explain about 5-10% of familial risk for the particular disease. The approach taken to date has been conservative, and only a fraction of information has yet to be extracted(More)
Little is known about the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the development of gastric cancer. Mutations in the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin are recognized to be associated with the development of undifferentiated, diffuse and invasive gastric cancers. A recent study of two gastric cancer families has shown that germline(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypothermia has been demonstrated to protect the brain from ischemic or traumatic injury. Previous efforts to induce cerebral hypothermia have relied on techniques requiring total body cooling that have resulted in serious cardiovascular derangements. A technique to selectively cool the brain, without systemic hypothermia, may have applications(More)