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Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without(More)
The representation of orientation in primary visual cortex (V1) has been examined at a fine spatial scale corresponding to the columnar architecture. We present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements providing evidence for a topographic map of orientation preference in human V1 at a much coarser scale, in register with the(More)
Multivariate decoding analyses are widely applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but there is controversy over their interpretation. Orientation decoding in primary visual cortex (V1) reflects coarse-scale biases, including an over-representation of radial orientations. But fMRI responses to clockwise and counter-clockwise spirals can(More)
Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on(More)
correspondence sists of two excitation laser beams. One beam scans the volume of the brain from the side of a horizontally positioned zebrafish but is rapidly switched off when inside an elliptical exclusion region located over the eye (Fig. 1b). Simultaneously, a second beam scans from the front, to cover the forebrain and the regions between the eyes.(More)
There is no generally accepted account of the function of the second visual cortical area (V2), partly because no simple response properties robustly distinguish V2 neurons from those in primary visual cortex (V1). We constructed synthetic stimuli replicating the higher-order statistical dependencies found in natural texture images and used them to(More)
Comprehensive measurement of neural activity remains challenging due to the large numbers of neurons in each brain area. We used volumetric two-photon imaging in mice expressing GCaMP6s and nuclear red fluorescent proteins to sample activity in 75% of superficial barrel cortex neurons across the relevant cortical columns, approximately 12,000 neurons per(More)
Unless we fixate directly on it, it is hard to see an object among other objects. This breakdown in object recognition, called crowding, severely limits peripheral vision. The effect is more severe when objects are more similar. When observers mistake the identity of a target among flanker objects, they often report a flanker. Many have taken these flanker(More)
Understanding how the brain operates requires understanding how large sets of neurons function together. Modern recording technology makes it possible to simultaneously record the activity of hundreds of neurons, and technological developments will soon allow recording of thousands or tens of thousands. As with all experimental techniques, these methods are(More)