Jeremy D Graham

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Pharmacological antagonists of steroid receptor action had been thought to exert their effects by a passive mechanism driven principally by the ability of the antagonist to compete with agonist for the ligand binding site. However, recent analyses of antagonist-occupied receptor function suggest a more complex picture. Antagonists can be subdivided into two(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogens have vascular effects through the activation of estrogen receptors (ERs). In addition to ERalpha, the first ER to be cloned, a second subtype called ERbeta has recently been discovered. METHODS AND RESULTS Using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay that employs the same primer pair to simultaneously amplify ERalpha(More)
The antiestrogen tamoxifen is an effective treatment for estrogen receptor positive breast cancers, slowing tumor growth and preventing disease recurrence, with relatively few side effects. However, many patients who initially respond to treatment, later become resistant to treatment. Tamoxifen has both agonist and antagonist activities, which are(More)
Hospitalists' specialized focus on inpatient care services has been conjectured to offer increased efficiency and reduce costs of inpatient care. Hospitalists' estimates of the unadjusted patient-charges generated by commonly-used services were measured. Hospitalists' agreement with one another, and accuracy relative to the actual patient-charges were both(More)
The development of tamoxifen resistance and consequent disease progression are common occurrences in breast cancers, often despite the continuing expression of estrogen receptors (ER). Tamoxifen is a mixed antagonist, having both agonist and antagonist properties. We have suggested that the development of tamoxifen resistance is associated with an increase(More)
Submitted July 19, 2012; final revision received September 13, 2012; accepted September 21, 2012. hemorrhage risk than non-TSC–related angiomyolipomas (AML).1-3 Although computed tomography usually differentiates AML from other masses, fat-poor subtypes may be difficult to discern.4 Without bleeding, AML generally warrants conservative management;(More)