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We review the current state-of-the-art of diffuse optical imaging, which is an emerging technique for functional imaging of biological tissue. It involves generating images using measurements of visible or near-infrared light scattered across large (greater than several centimetres) thicknesses of tissue. We discuss recent advances in experimental methods(More)
The desire for a diagnostic optical imaging modality has motivated the development of image reconstruction procedures involving solution of the inverse problem. This approach is based on the assumption that, given a set of measurements of transmitted light between pairs of points on the surface of an object, there exists a unique three-dimensional(More)
For the first time, three-dimensional images of the newborn infant brain have been generated using measurements of transmitted light. A 32-channel time-resolved imaging system was employed, and data were acquired using custom-made helmets which couple source fibres and detector bundles to the infant head. Images have been reconstructed using measurements of(More)
We present an overview of time-resolved optical tomog-raphy together with the hardware and software methods that we have developed for a clinical instrument that implements this modality. The hardware is based on a multichannel photon-counting technique that records the histograms of photons time-of-flight through highly scattering and attenuating media.(More)
We present what is believed to be the first simultaneous reconstruction of the internal scattering and absorbing properties of a highly scattering medium by use of purely temporal data. These results are also the first acquired with the multichannel time-resolved imaging system developed at University College London.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a unique method of monitoring infant brain function by measuring the changes in the concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. During the past 10 years, NIRS measurement of the developing brain has rapidly expanded. In this article, a brief discussion of the general principles of NIRS, including its(More)
The overwhelming scatter which occurs when optical radiation propagates through tissue severely limits the ability to image internal structure using measurements of transmitted intensity. A broad range of methods has been proposed during the past decade or so in order to improve imaging performance. Direct methods involve isolating an unscattered or(More)
Induced haemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes occurring within the brain of a ventilated newborn infant have been imaged in three dimensions using optical tomography. Noninvasive measurements of the flight times of transmitted light were acquired during illumination of the brain by laser pulses at wavelengths of 780 nm and 815 nm. The oxygen and carbon(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to record oxygenation changes in the visual cortex of 4 month old infants. Our in-house topography system, with 30 channels and 3 different source-detector separations, recorded changes in the concentration of oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin (HbO2, HHb and HbT) in response to visual stimuli (face, scrambled visual(More)
We demonstrate experimentally the possibility of reproducing the phase function, absorption, and scattering coefficients of a real biological tissue (adult brain white matter and liver) using a suspension of polystyrene microspheres with a fractal size distribution. The design of a light scattering goniometer with a cylindrical cell in air is discussed, and(More)