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Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computation, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science(More)
The endocrine disrupting effects of estrogenic compounds in surface waters on fish, such as feminization of males and altered sex ratios, may also occur in aquatic invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanisms of action and toxicity, especially in native freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida), remain undefined. This study evaluated the effects of a 12-day(More)
Androgen-induced masculinization of female aquatic biota poses concerns for natural population stability. This research evaluated the effects of a twelve day exposure of fadrozole hydrochloride on the metabolism and reproductive status of the unionid mussel Lampsilis fasciola. Although this compound is not considered to be widespread in the aquatic(More)
Surface water concentrations of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) as low as 1ng/L can cause adverse reproductive effects in fish under acute and chronic exposure conditions, whereas higher concentrations (> 5ng/L) in acute studies are necessary to elicit adverse effects in freshwater mussels. Prolonged chronic exposures of freshwater mussels(More)
Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining(More)
The Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee, USA, is well known for its diverse native freshwater mussel assemblages; however, notable declines in mussel populations in recent decades have prompted much concern and subsequent research. The authors examined the toxicity of recently deposited sediments on juveniles of the freshwater mussel Epioblasma brevidens(More)
Some pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals bind the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme and disrupt thyroid hormone production. The potential for TPO inhibition is a function of both the binding affinity and concentration of the chemical within the thyroid gland. The former can be determined through in vitro assays, and the latter is influenced by(More)
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BACKGROUND Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) link adverse effects in individuals or populations to a molecular initiating event (MIE) that can be quantified using in vitro methods. Practical application of AOPs in chemical-specific risk assessment requires incorporation of knowledge on exposure, along with absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion(More)