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Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computation, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science(More)
The endocrine disrupting effects of estrogenic compounds in surface waters on fish, such as feminization of males and altered sex ratios, may also occur in aquatic invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanisms of action and toxicity, especially in native freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida), remain undefined. This study evaluated the effects of a 12-day(More)
Androgen-induced masculinization of female aquatic biota poses concerns for natural population stability. This research evaluated the effects of a twelve day exposure of fadrozole hydrochloride on the metabolism and reproductive status of the unionid mussel Lampsilis fasciola. Although this compound is not considered to be widespread in the aquatic(More)
Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining(More)
Surface water concentrations of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) as low as 1ng/L can cause adverse reproductive effects in fish under acute and chronic exposure conditions, whereas higher concentrations (> 5ng/L) in acute studies are necessary to elicit adverse effects in freshwater mussels. Prolonged chronic exposures of freshwater mussels(More)
The Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee, USA, is well known for its diverse native freshwater mussel assemblages; however, notable declines in mussel populations in recent decades have prompted much concern and subsequent research. The authors examined the toxicity of recently deposited sediments on juveniles of the freshwater mussel Epioblasma brevidens(More)
Some pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals bind the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme and disrupt thyroid hormone production. The potential for TPO inhibition is a function of both the binding affinity and concentration of the chemical within the thyroid gland. The former can be determined through in vitro assays, and the latter is influenced by(More)
A few different exposure prediction tools were evaluated for use in the new in vitro-based safety assessment paradigm using di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) as case compounds. Daily intake of each phthalate was estimated using both high-throughput (HT) prediction models such as the HT Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose(More)
The toxicity-testing paradigm has evolved to include high-throughput (HT) methods for addressing the increasing need to screen hundreds to thousands of chemicals rapidly. Approaches that involve in vitro screening assays, in silico predictions of exposure concentrations, and pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics provide the foundation for HT risk(More)
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