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PURPOSE To investigate whether structural changes to the sclera during form-deprivation myopia are caused by active tissue remodeling, the gelatinase activity of tree shrew scleras was studied in normal animals, form-vision deprived animals, and animals recovering from myopia. METHODS Infant tree shrews were monocularly deprived (MD) of form vision with(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the sibling recurrence risk (KS) and the sibling recurrence risk ratio (lambda(S)) for high myopia in a cohort in the United Kingdom. METHOD The recurrence risks for myopia and high myopia were estimated in the siblings of 296 randomly selected high myopes ascertained from an optometric practice population. A model using an age of(More)
Myopia development in humans depends on a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Many of those who become myopic when exposed to a myopigenic environment are likely to do so because of a genetic susceptibility, whereas others somehow remain immune. In the most intensively studied model of environmentally induced myopia,(More)
DNA fragments that show a pattern of differential expression on differential display gels must be eluted from the gel matrix and reamplified to enable further analysis. Elution is usually achieved by heating excised gel slices in a small volume of either water or TE. Here we show that this elution step can adversely affect the ability of the eluted DNA to(More)
PURPOSE Time spent in "sports/outdoor activity" has shown a negative association with incident myopia during childhood. We investigated the association of incident myopia with time spent outdoors and physical activity separately. METHODS Participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were assessed by noncycloplegic(More)
BACKGROUND It has been reported that exposure to artificial lighting at night during the first 2 years of life was very strongly associated with subsequent myopia development. METHODS The strength of this association was tested in a UK sample for the first time. The study population comprised 122 university students. RESULTS Myopia occurred with(More)
PURPOSE To determine the extent to which high myopia in a cohort of 51 U.K. families can be attributed to currently identified genetic loci. METHODS The families comprised 245 subjects with phenotypic information and DNA available, of whom 170 were classified as affected. Subjects were genotyped for microsatellite markers spanning approximately 40cM(More)
PURPOSE Several nonsyndromic high-grade myopia loci have been mapped primarily by microsatellite markers and a limited number of pedigrees. In this study, whole-genome linkage scans were performed for high-grade myopia, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 254 families from five independent sites. METHODS Genomic DNA samples from 1411 subjects(More)
Purpose. To test whether the interanimal variability in susceptibility to visually induced myopia is genetically determined. Methods. Monocular deprivation of sharp vision (DSV) was induced in outbred White Leghorn chicks aged 4 days. After 4 days' DSV, myopia susceptibility was quantified by the relative changes in axial length and refraction. Chicks in(More)
PURPOSE Mandel et al recently reported that season of birth and daylight hours (photoperiod) at birth were associated with moderate and high levels of myopia in Israeli conscripts. We sought to investigate whether these associations were evident in subjects from the United Kingdom (UK). DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS The study(More)