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Machine learning approaches offer the potential to systematically identify transcriptional regulatory interactions from a compendium of microarray expression profiles. However, experimental validation of the performance of these methods at the genome scale has remained elusive. Here we assess the global performance of four existing classes of inference(More)
High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized microbial ecology, but read quality remains a considerable barrier to accurate taxonomy assignment and α-diversity assessment for microbial communities. We demonstrate that high-quality read length and abundance are the primary factors differentiating correct from erroneous reads produced by Illumina GAIIx,(More)
Diet and nutritional status are among the most important modifiable determinants of human health. The nutritional value of food is influenced in part by a person's gut microbial community (microbiota) and its component genes (microbiome). Unraveling the interrelations among diet, the structure and operations of the gut microbiota, and nutrient and energy(More)
The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and(More)
Many Microbe Microarrays Database (M3D) is designed to facilitate the analysis and visualization of expression data in compendia compiled from multiple laboratories. M3D contains over a thousand Affymetrix microarrays for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Shewanella oneidensis. The expression data is uniformly normalized to make the data(More)
Microarray technologies, which enable the simultaneous measurement of all RNA transcripts in a cell, have spawned the development of algorithms for reverse-engineering transcription control networks. In this article, we classify the algorithms into two general strategies: physical modeling and influence modeling. We discuss the biological and computational(More)
A low-error 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing method, in combination with whole-genome sequencing of >500 cultured isolates, was used to characterize bacterial strain composition in the fecal microbiota of 37 U.S. adults sampled for up to 5 years. Microbiota stability followed a power-law function, which when extrapolated suggests that most strains in(More)
We deeply sampled the organismal, genetic, and transcriptional diversity in fecal samples collected from a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair and compared the results to 1,095 communities from the gut and other body habitats of related and unrelated individuals. Using a new scheme for noise reduction in pyrosequencing data, we estimated the total diversity of(More)
Protein-coding genes in mitochondrial genomes have varying degrees of asymmetric skew in base frequencies at the third codon position. The variation in skew among genes appears to be caused by varying durations of time that the heavy strand spends in the mutagenic single-strand state during replication (D(ssH)). The primary data used to study skew have been(More)
The proportion of the human gut bacterial community that is recalcitrant to culture remains poorly defined. In this report, we combine high-throughput anaerobic culturing techniques with gnotobiotic animal husbandry and metagenomics to show that the human fecal microbiota consists largely of taxa and predicted functions that are represented in its readily(More)