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Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous(More)
A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96-704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes(More)
Advances in our understanding of neural systems will go hand in hand with improvements in the experimental techniques used to study these systems. This article describes a series of methodological developments aimed at enhancing the power of the methods needed to record simultaneously from populations of neurons over broad regions of the brain in awake,(More)
Previously we have shown that the kinematic parameters of reaching movements can be extracted from the activity of cortical ensembles. Here we used cortical ensemble activity to predict electromyographic (EMG) signals of four arm muscles in New World monkeys. The overall shape of the EMG envelope was predicted, as well as trial-to-trial variations in the(More)
A great deal of research on the prefrontal cortex (PF), especially in nonhuman primates, has focused on the theory that it functions predominantly in the maintenance of short-term memories, and neurophysiologists have often interpreted PF's delay-period activity in the context of this theory. Neuroimaging results, however, suggest that PF's function extends(More)
When food is launched down a vertically positioned S-shaped opaque tube, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) search for the food in the position directly beneath the release point, even though over several trials it never appears in this position (B. M. Hood et al., 1999). Experiment 1 showed that when the trajectory of the food shifts from the vertical(More)
To reinvestigate whether macaque monkeys could learn the reversed-contingency task, we trained six rhesus monkeys on the problem. On each trial, the monkeys chose between one and four pieces of the same food item. If a monkey selected four pieces of food, it received one instead; choice of one piece of food led to the receipt of four. All of the monkeys(More)
When presented with a choice between 1 and 3 pieces of food in a type of reversed contingency task, 4 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) consistently chose the 3 pieces of food and received nothing, even though the choice of 1 piece would have yielded 3. However, in a task in which the tamarins received the 1 piece of food when they chose it, all(More)
Monkeys with lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) are impaired on behavioral tasks that require the ability to respond flexibly to changes in reward contingency (e.g., object reversal learning and extinction). These and related findings in rodents and humans have led to the suggestion that PFo is critical for the inhibitory control needed to(More)
To explore the relationship between problem solving and inhibitory control, the authors present 4 experiments on cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) using a reverse-reward contingency task. In Experiment 1, 1 group of tamarins was given a choice between a small and a large quantity of food. Whichever quantity the tamarins reached for first, they received(More)