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Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS, was cloned. The p38 enzyme and the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene, which are both members of the mitogen-activated protein(More)
Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), also known as ERK5, is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase member whose biological role is largely undefined. We have shown previously that the activity of BMK1 in rat smooth muscle cells is up-regulated by oxidants. Here, we describe a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK5(D), which selectively activates(More)
BACKGROUND The clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant lymphomas vary according to geography. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of malignant lymphomas and the relative frequency in the Republic of Korea of lymphomas belonging to the newly described REAL (revised European-American lymphoma) classification categories.(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a multigene family activated by many extracellular stimuli. There are three groups of MAP kinases based on their dual phosphorylation motifs, TEY, TPY, and TGY, which are termed extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38, respectively. A new MAP kinase family member(More)
The Nocardia sp. L-417 strain grown with n-hexadecane as a carbon source produced two types of biosurfactant that have different characteristics. These biosurfactants were purified by procedures that included ammonium sulphate fractionation, chilled acetone and hexane treatments, silica-gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration. The(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases comprise a family of conserved, eukaryotic enzymes that mediate responses to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. We have identified a new human MAP kinase gene here termed BMK1. BMK1 encodes a protein of 816 amino acid residues and has at least three different forms of mRNA. BMK1 messages are abundant in heart,(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell proliferation in a variety of cell types by binding to a prototype transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Ligation of this receptor by EGF activates Erk1 and Erk2, members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, through a Ras-dependent signal transduction pathway. Despite our detailed understanding(More)
BACKGROUND Supraglottic airway devices with noninflatable cuff have advantages in omitting the cuff pressure monitoring and reducing potential pharyngolaryngeal complications. Typical devices without cuff inflation available in children are the i-gel and the self-pressurized air-Q intubating laryngeal airway (air-Q SP). To date, there is no comparative(More)
Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) causes fatal shock in humans and experimental animals. The shock is mediated by cytokines released by direct LPS stimulation of cells of monocytic origin (monocyte/macrophage [MO]). Recent studies have supported the concept that the plasma protein, LPS binding protein (LBP), plays an important role in(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases require dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine residues in order to gain enzymatic activity. This activation is carried out by a family of enzymes known as MAP kinase kinases (MKKs or MEKs). It appears that there are at least four subgroups in this family; MEK1/MEK2 subgroup that activates ERK1/ERK2, MEK5 that(More)