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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that affects ~5% of school-aged children; however, the mechanisms underlying ADHD remain largely unclear. Here we report a previously unidentified association between G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein-1 (GIT1) and ADHD in humans. An intronic single-nucleotide(More)
Hypoxic damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the frontal lobe dysfunction found in various neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying subcortical mechanisms, however, have not been well explored. In this study, we induced a PFC-specific hypoxia-like damage by cobalt-wire implantation to demonstrate that the role of the mediodorsal(More)
T-type Ca(2+) channels have been implicated in tremorogenesis and motor coordination. The α1 subunit of the Ca(V)3.1 T-type Ca(2+) channel is highly expressed in motor pathways in the brain, but knockout of the Ca(V)3.1 gene (α(1G)(-/-)) per se causes no motor defects in mice. Thus, the role of Ca(V)3.1 channels in motor control remains obscure in vivo.(More)
Specific behavioral patterns are expressed by complex combinations of muscle coordination. Tremors are simple behavioral patterns and are the focus of studies investigating motor coordination mechanisms in the brain. T-type Ca(2+) channels mediate intrinsic neuronal oscillations and rhythmic burst spiking, and facilitate the generation of tremor rhythms in(More)
Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of functional macromolecules is a promising method for treating a variety of human diseases. Among nanoparticles, cell-derived exosomes have recently been highlighted as a new therapeutic strategy for the in vivo delivery of nucleotides and chemical drugs. Here we describe a new tool for intracellular delivery of target(More)
This study describes a new effort toward understanding the interaction mechanisms between antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and phages. The antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase activity, bacterial motility, gene expression, and lytic activity were evaluated in ciprofloxacin-induced antibiotic-sensitive Salmonella Typhimurium (ASSTCIP) and(More)
Bacteria treated with different classes of antibiotics exhibit changes in susceptibility to successive antibiotic treatments. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of sequential antibiotic treatments on the development of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with β-lactamase and efflux pump activities. The antibiotic(More)
Spatiotemporal mapping of neural interactions through electrocorticography (ECoG) is the key to understanding brain functions and disorders. For the entire brain cortical areas, this approach has been challenging, especially in freely moving states, owing to the need for extensive craniotomy. Here, we introduce a flexible microelectrode array system, termed(More)
The motor cortex orchestrates simple to complex motor behaviors through its output projections to target areas. The primary (MOp) and secondary (MOs) motor cortices are known to produce specific output projections that are targeted to both similar and different target areas. These projections are further divided into layer 5 and 6 neuronal outputs, thereby(More)