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Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox) kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid(More)
This paper describes the implementation of a dual-kernel software architecture, based on standard Linux and real-time embedded Linux, for real-time control of service robots in ubiquitous sensor network environments. Mobile robots are used in active service for the assisted living of elderly people, monitoring their mental and physiological data with(More)
2 Abstract Pacific salmon abundance, as indexed by aggregate commercial catches, increased following the 1977 regime shift and has remained relatively stable since the 1990's with no indication of decline. The highest catches on record occurred during 2007 when ~1.03 million tonnes of salmon (~513 million fish) were caught. There are more adult salmon in(More)
The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration(More)
As the next step towards generating a synthetic biology from artificial genetic information systems, we have examined variants of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) for their ability to synthesize duplex DNA incorporating the non-standard base pair between 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (pyDAD), a pyrimidine presenting a hydrogen bond 'donor-acceptor-donor' pattern to(More)
The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a major site of chemosensation in mammalian studies. Enteroendocrine cells are chemosensory cells in the gut which produce regulatory peptides in response to luminal contents to regulate gut physiology, food intake, and glucose homeostasis, among other possible functions. Increasing evidence shows that mammalian(More)
In Drosophila, the gustatory receptor (Gr) gene family contains 60 family members that encode 68 proteins through alternative splicing. Some gustatory receptors (Grs) are involved in the sensing of sugars, bitter substrates, CO(2), pheromones, and light. Here, we systematically examined the expression of all 68 Grs in abdominal neurons which project to the(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common and prominent feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases; it is induced by oxidative stress in scrapie-infected animal models. In previous studies, we found swelling and dysfunction of mitochondria in the brains of scrapie-infected mice compared to brains of controls, but the mechanisms(More)