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Our objective is to present surgical techniques used for the prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after microvascular decompression (MVD). From January 1996 to February 2006, microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia was performed in 678 consecutive patients. In order to achieve watertight dural closure, several pieces of(More)
INTRODUCTION De-escalation therapy is a strategy currently used for the management of nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated clinical outcomes and risk factors related to de-escalation therapy in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia. METHODS This was a retrospective observational cohort study of ICU patients who developed(More)
The performance of existing adders varies widely in their speed and area requirements, which in turn sometimes makes designers pay a high cost in area especially when the delay requirements exceeds the fastest speed of a specific adder, no matter how small the difference is. To expand the design space and manage delay/area tradeoffs, we propose new adder(More)
PURPOSE The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. METHODS Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively.(More)
BACKGROUND Hand hygiene compliance has improved significantly through hand hygiene promotion programs that have included poster campaign, monitoring and performance feedback, and education with special attentions to perceived subjective norms. We investigated factors associated with improved hand hygiene compliance, focusing on whether the improvement of(More)