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This article reviews the growing body of scientific work in artificial chemistry. First, common motivations and fundamental concepts are introduced. Second, current research activities are discussed along three application dimensions: modeling, information processing, and optimization. Finally, common phenomena among the different systems are summarized. It(More)
We present the system SIGEL that combines the simulation and visualization of robots with a Genetic Programming system for the automated evolution of walking. It is designed to automatically generate control programs for arbitrary robots without depending on detailed analytical information of the robots' kinematic structure. Different fitness functions as(More)
In this paper a method is presented that decreases the necessary number of evaluations in Evolutionary Algorithms. A classifier with confidence information is evolved to replace time consuming evaluations during tournament selection. Experimental analysis of a mathematical example and the application of the method to the problem of evolving walking patterns(More)
In this paper we suggest a novel method to approximate the fitness function of a genetic programming approach in order to develop fast and stable gait patterns for a quadruped robot. Therefore, gait patterns are classified by so called Signal Space Detectors. We show how a Signal Space Detector can extract information about the reliability of a(More)