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Viscoelasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissue and is increasingly used as a diagnostic marker, e.g. in staging liver fibrosis or characterizing breast tumors. In this study, multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was used to investigate the in vivo viscoelasticity of healthy human brain in 55(More)
The value of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in deriving novel diagnostic and therapeutic input has been subject to recent debate. This study is the first to report a disseminated distribution of plaques including cranial nerves, prior to or at early stages of disease in murine adoptive transfer EAE,(More)
BACKGROUND Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was(More)
BACKGROUND Circumventricular organs (CVO) are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in determining immune cell recruitment into the brain. METHODS In a longitudinal study we investigated in vivo alterations of CVO during(More)
We present a novel highly efficient protocol to magnetically label T cells applying electrostatically stabilized very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP). Our long-term aim is to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate T cell dynamics in vivo during the course of neuroinflammatory disorders such as experimental autoimmune(More)
New MRI techniques such as the analysis of magnetization transfer or diffusion have provided evidence for subtle progressive alterations in tissue integrity prior to focal leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as part of plaque formation in multiple sclerosis. Since inflammation is capable of modulating the microcirculation, we investigated the(More)
The proximity of immune cell aggregations to the vasculature is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that inflammation is able to modulate the microcirculation. Until recently, the detection of cerebral blood perfusion changes was technically challenging, and perfusion studies in multiple sclerosis patients yielded(More)
Identifying effective treatment combinations for MS patients failing standard therapy is an important goal. We report the results of a phase II open label baseline-to-treatment trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD25 (daclizumab) in 10 multiple sclerosis patients with incomplete response to IFN-beta therapy and high brain inflammatory and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate distinct white matter and cortical gray matter pathology in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) at 7-T MRI in a cross-sectional study. METHODS We included 10 patients with NMOSDs and 18 patients with MS in our 7-T MRI study. The imaging protocol comprised T2*-weighted fast low angle shot(More)
Neuroaxonal degeneration in the central nervous system contributes substantially to the long term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo determination and monitoring of neurodegeneration remain difficult. As the widely used MRI-based approaches, including the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) have some limitations, complementary in(More)