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Viscoelasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissue and is increasingly used as a diagnostic marker, e.g. in staging liver fibrosis or characterizing breast tumors. In this study, multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was used to investigate the in vivo viscoelasticity of healthy human brain in 55(More)
The value of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in deriving novel diagnostic and therapeutic input has been subject to recent debate. This study is the first to report a disseminated distribution of plaques including cranial nerves, prior to or at early stages of disease in murine adoptive transfer EAE,(More)
BACKGROUND Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was(More)
BACKGROUND Circumventricular organs (CVO) are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in determining immune cell recruitment into the brain. METHODS In a longitudinal study we investigated in vivo alterations of CVO during(More)
New MRI techniques such as the analysis of magnetization transfer or diffusion have provided evidence for subtle progressive alterations in tissue integrity prior to focal leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as part of plaque formation in multiple sclerosis. Since inflammation is capable of modulating the microcirculation, we investigated the(More)
The proximity of immune cell aggregations to the vasculature is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that inflammation is able to modulate the microcirculation. Until recently, the detection of cerebral blood perfusion changes was technically challenging, and perfusion studies in multiple sclerosis patients yielded(More)
Neuroaxonal degeneration in the central nervous system contributes substantially to the long term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo determination and monitoring of neurodegeneration remain difficult. As the widely used MRI-based approaches, including the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) have some limitations, complementary in(More)
Identifying effective treatment combinations for MS patients failing standard therapy is an important goal. We report the results of a phase II open label baseline-to-treatment trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD25 (daclizumab) in 10 multiple sclerosis patients with incomplete response to IFN-beta therapy and high brain inflammatory and(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can present similarly to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Using a quantitative lesion mapping approach, this research aimed to identify differences in MRI brain lesion distribution between aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and RRMS, and to test their diagnostic potential. (More)
BACKGROUND Recent data from animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and from a pilot study indicated a possible beneficial impact of statins on MS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Safety, tolerability and effects on disease activity of atorvastatin given alone or in combination with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) were assessed in a phase II open-label(More)