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New MRI techniques such as the analysis of magnetization transfer or diffusion have provided evidence for subtle progressive alterations in tissue integrity prior to focal leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as part of plaque formation in multiple sclerosis. Since inflammation is capable of modulating the microcirculation, we investigated the(More)
The value of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in deriving novel diagnostic and therapeutic input has been subject to recent debate. This study is the first to report a disseminated distribution of plaques including cranial nerves, prior to or at early stages of disease in murine adoptive transfer EAE,(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can present similarly to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Using a quantitative lesion mapping approach, this research aimed to identify differences in MRI brain lesion distribution between aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and RRMS, and to test their diagnostic potential. (More)
Viscoelasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissue and is increasingly used as a diagnostic marker, e.g. in staging liver fibrosis or characterizing breast tumors. In this study, multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was used to investigate the in vivo viscoelasticity of healthy human brain in 55(More)
Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti-aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive(More)
BACKGROUND In current clinical practice, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly applied to quantify the accumulated multiple sclerosis (MS)lesion load, whereas T1-weighted sequences are used to differentiate edema, blood-brain barrier breakdown by contrast enhancement, and irreversible brain tissue damage(commonly called “black holes”(More)
Identifying effective treatment combinations for MS patients failing standard therapy is an important goal. We report the results of a phase II open label baseline-to-treatment trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD25 (daclizumab) in 10 multiple sclerosis patients with incomplete response to IFN-beta therapy and high brain inflammatory and(More)
The Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS), perivascular compartments surrounding small blood vessels as they penetrate the brain parenchyma, are increasingly recognized for their role in leucocyte trafficking as well as for their potential to modulate immune responses. In the present study, we investigated VRS numbers and volumes in different brain regions in 45(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). An influence of optic neuritis is well documented but sparsely investigated. Recently, the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) has been shown to provide superior information regarding visual function and retinal neurodegeneration as compared with(More)
Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was demonstrated. We(More)