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The mechanisms linking sensation and action during learning are poorly understood. Layer 2/3 neurons in the motor cortex might participate in sensorimotor integration and learning; they receive input from sensory cortex and excite deep layer neurons, which control movement. Here we imaged activity in the same set of layer 2/3 neurons in the motor cortex(More)
Spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) is the embodiment of Donald Hebb's postulated rule for associative memory formation. Pre- and postsynaptic action potentials need to be precisely correlated in time to induce this form of synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors have been proposed to detect correlated activity and to trigger synaptic(More)
Synaptic activity initiates many adaptive responses in neurons. Here we report a novel form of structural plasticity in dissociated hippocampal cultures and slice preparations. Using a recently developed algorithm for three-dimensional image reconstruction and quantitative measurements of cell organelles, we found that many nuclei from hippocampal neurons(More)
The propagation of signals from synapses and dendrites to the nucleus is crucial for long lasting adaptive changes in the nervous system. The ERK-MAPK pathway can link neuronal activity and cell surface receptor activation to the regulation of gene transcription, and it is often considered the principal mediator of synapse-to-nucleus communication in(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) weakens synaptic transmission in an activity-dependent manner. It is not clear, however, whether individual synapses are able to maintain a depressed state indefinitely, as intracellular recordings rarely exceed 1 h. Here, we combine optogenetic stimulation of identified Schaffer collateral axons with two-photon imaging of(More)
Activity-dependent gene expression is important for the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, neuronal survival and for plastic modifications within mature networks. At the level of individual neurons, expression of new protein is required for dendritic branching, synapse formation and elimination. Experience-driven synaptic activity induces(More)
BACKGROUND The magnitude and longevity of synaptic activity-induced changes in synaptic efficacy is quantified by measuring evoked responses whose potentiation requires gene transcription to persist for more than 2-3 hours. While miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) are also increased in amplitude and/or frequency during long-term potentiation (LTP), it is not known(More)
In flat detector cone-beam computed tomography and related applications, sparse angular sampling frequently leads to characteristic streak artifacts. To overcome this problem, it has been suggested to generate additional views by means of interpolation. The practicality of this approach is investigated in combination with a dedicated method for angular(More)
To compensate for sparse angular sampling in cone-beam computed tomography causing characteristic streak artifacts, we propose to increase the number of projected views by means of nonlinear directional interpolation. For this purpose, a specific method for accurate interpolation of 3D sinogram data based on a structure tensor approach has been developed.(More)