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Plant diversity has been shown to increase community biomass in experimental communities, but the mechanisms resulting in such positive biodiversity effects have remained largely unknown. We used a large-scale six-year biodiversity experiment near Jena, Germany, to examine how aboveground community biomass in grasslands is affected by different components(More)
Biodiversity is rapidly declining, and this may negatively affect ecosystem processes, including economically important ecosystem services. Previous studies have shown that biodiversity has positive effects on organisms and processes across trophic levels. However, only a few studies have so far incorporated an explicit food-web perspective. In an(More)
BACKGROUND The different hypotheses proposed to explain positive species richness-productivity relationships, i.e. selection effect and complementarity effect, imply that plant functional characteristics are at the core of a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We used two community-wide measures of plant(More)
The diversity-stability hypothesis states that current losses of biodiversity can impair the ability of an ecosystem to dampen the effect of environmental perturbations on its functioning. Using data from a long-term and comprehensive biodiversity experiment, we quantified the temporal stability of 42 variables characterizing twelve ecological functions in(More)
In interactive graphics it is often necessary to introduce large changes in the image in response to updated information about the state of the system. Updating the local state immediately would lead to a sudden transient change in the image, which could be perceptually disruptive. However, introducing the correction gradually using smoothing operations(More)
Nowadays, in a hotly competitive environment, companies are continuously trying to provide products and/or services to customers faster, cheaper, and better than the competitors do. Managers have learned that they cannot do it alone; rather, they must work on a cooperative basis with other organizations in order to succeed. Although the resulting enterprise(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Recent biodiversity research has focused on ecosystem processes, but less is known about responses of populations of individual plant species to changing community diversity and implications of genetic variation within species. To address these issues, effects of plant community diversity on the performance of different cultivars of(More)
Although Quality of Experience (QoE) is perceived as a subjective measure of a user’s experience, it is the only measure that actually counts to a user of a service. It is essential to identify, quantify and ultimately improve the perception of QoE for a user. The PERIMETER project improves the user’s experience by identifying a more(More)
Strategies for antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy, such as active immunization with virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines, are gaining increasing attention. We developed chimeric hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg)-VLPs that display a surface epitope of the highly selective tumor-associated cell lineage marker claudin-18 isoform 2 (CLDN18.2)(More)