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We show that a distribution of micrometer-sized calcifications in the human breast which are not visible in clinical x-ray mammography at diagnostic dose levels can produce a significant dark-field signal in a grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging setup with a tungsten anode x-ray tube operated at 40 kVp. A breast specimen with invasive ductal(More)
Mastectomy specimens were investigated using a Talbot-Lau X-ray imaging set-up. Significant structures in the darkfield were observed, which revealed considerably higher contrast than those observed in digital mammography. Comparison with the histomorphometric image proofs that the darkfield signal correlates with a tumor region containing small(More)
Grating based X-ray differential phase contrast imaging (DPCI) allows for high contrast imaging of materials with similar absorption characteristics. In the last years' publications, small animals or parts of the human body like breast, hand, joints or blood vessels have been studied. Larger objects could not be investigated due to the restricted field of(More)
A simulation framework for coherent X-ray imaging, based on scalar diffraction theory, is presented. It contains a core C++ library and an additional Python interface. A workflow is presented to include contributions of inelastic scattering obtained with Monte-Carlo methods. X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry is the primary focus of the framework. Simulations(More)
Over the recent years X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging was developed for the hard X-ray regime as produced from laboratory X-ray sources. The technique uses a grating-based Talbot-Lau interferometer and was shown to yield image contrast gain, which makes it very interesting to the fields of medical imaging and non-destructive testing, respectively.(More)
Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a new imaging modality. It allows the visualization of structures at micrometer scale due to small-angle scattering of the X-ray beam. However, reading darkfield images is challenging as absorption and edge-diffraction effects also contribute to the dark-field signal, without adding diagnostic value. In this paper,(More)
PURPOSE Many expectations have been raised since the use of conventional x-ray tubes on grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Despite a reported increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in many publications, there is doubt on whether phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) is advantageous in clinical CT scanners in vivo. The aim of this paper is to(More)
PURPOSE X-ray dark-field imaging promises information on the small angle scattering properties even of large samples. However, the dark-field image is correlated with the object's attenuation and phase-shift if a polychromatic x-ray spectrum is used. A method to remove part of these correlations is proposed. METHODS The experimental setup for image(More)
The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved(More)
We have carried out grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast measurements with a hybrid pixel detector in 16 energy channels simultaneously. A method for combining the energy resolved phase-contrast images based on energy weighting is presented. An improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio by 58.2% with respect to an emulated integrating detector could(More)