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Synaptic neurotransmitter release is restricted to active zones, where the processes of synaptic vesicle tethering, priming to fusion competence, and Ca2+-triggered fusion are taking place in a highly coordinated manner. We show that the active zone components Munc13-1, an essential vesicle priming protein, and RIM1, a Rab3 effector with a putative role in(More)
Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before Ca(2+) triggers their exocytosis. Exocytosis requires the assembly of SNARE complexes formed by the vesicle protein Synaptobrevin and the membrane proteins Syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25. We analyzed the role of Munc18-1, a cytosolic binding partner of Syntaxin-1, in large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) secretion.(More)
Munc13-1, a mammalian homolog of C. elegans unc-13p, is thought to be involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission. We now demonstrate that Munc13-1 is a presynaptic high-affinity phorbol ester and diacylglycerol receptor with ligand affinities similar to those of protein kinase C. Munc13-1 associates with the plasma membrane in response to phorbol(More)
Immunochemical studies have suggested a tight association of syntaxin with N-type calcium channels. Syntaxin specifically interacts with the fusion proteins containing the cytoplasmic loop (LII-III) between homologous repeats II and III of the alpha 1 subunit of the class B N-type calcium channel (alpha 1B) from rat brain, but not with those of the class A(More)
Presynaptic Ca2+ channels are crucial elements in neuronal excitation-secretion coupling. In addition to mediating Ca2+ entry to initiate transmitter release, they are thought to interact directly with proteins of the synaptic vesicle docking/fusion machinery. Here we report isoform-specific, stoichiometric interaction of the BI and rbA isoforms of the(More)
The twinning of techniques from biophysics and molecular biology has led to remarkable progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission. Here we review the current picture of Ca++-triggered exocytosis, which has emerged from studies of a simple cellular model, the adrenal chromaffin cell. We discuss the molecular players that have(More)
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) constitutes a key event in the upregulation of secretory strength in neurons and neurosecretory cells during extensive stimulation, presumably by speeding up vesicle supply. However, the molecular targets and their mode of action remain elusive. We studied the only PKC-dependent phosphorylation site in the neuronal(More)
Neurotransmitter release is initiated by influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, within 200 microseconds of the action potential arriving at the synaptic terminal, as the Ca2+ concentration increases from 100 nM to > 200 microM. Exocytosis requires high Ca2+ concentration, with a threshold of 20-50 microM and half-maximal activation at 190(More)
In chromaffin cells the number of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) which can be released by brief, intense stimuli represents only a small fraction of the 'morphologically docked' vesicles at the plasma membrane. Recently, it was shown that Munc13-1 is essential for a post-docking step of synaptic vesicle fusion. To investigate the role of Munc13-1 in LDCV(More)
Neurotransmitters are released by Ca(2+)-triggered exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles. Before fusion, vesicles dock at a specialised presynaptic plasma membrane region, the active zone, where they are primed to a fusion competent state. The nature of this priming reaction has long been enigmatic. Recent evidence demonstrates that priming is an essential(More)