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Expression of the dopaminergic neurotrophin GDF-5 in developing rat ventral mesencephalon (VM) was found to begin at embryonic day (E) 12 and peak on E14, when dopaminergic neurones undergo terminal differentiation. In the adult rat, GDF-5 was found to be restricted to heart and brain, being expressed in many areas of the brain, including striatum and(More)
Here we describe 2 mutations in growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) that alter receptor-binding affinities. They cause brachydactyly type A2 (L441P) and symphalangism (R438L), conditions previously associated with mutations in the GDF5 receptor bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1b (BMPR1B) and the BMP antagonist NOGGIN, respectively. We(More)
We investigated a family with a brachydactyly type A2 and identified a heterozygous arginine to glutamine (R380Q) substitution in the growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) in all affected individuals. The observed mutation is located at the processing site of the protein, at which the GDF5 precursor is thought to be cleaved releasing the mature molecule(More)
The brachydactylies are a group of inherited disorders of the hands characterized by shortened digits. Mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor Ror2 cause brachydactyly type B (BDB). Mutations in GDF5, a member of the BMP/TGF-beta ligand family, cause brachydactyly type C (BDC) whereas mutations in the receptor for GDF5, BRI-b, cause brachydactyly type A2(More)
Beta-D-glucosyl-ifosfamide mustard (D 19575, glc-IPM, INN = glufosfamide) is a new agent for cancer chemotherapy. Its mode of action, which is only partly understood, was investigated at the DNA level. In the breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 glufosfamide inhibited both the synthesis of DNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by the decreased(More)
Signaling output of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is determined by two sets of opposing interactions, one with heterotetrameric complexes of cell surface receptors, the other with secreted antagonists that act as ligand traps. We identified two mutations (N445K,T) in patients with multiple synostosis syndrome (SYM1) in the BMP-related ligand GDF5.(More)
The purpose of this chapter is to trace the evolution of intelligent software from data-centric applications that essentially encapsulate their data environment to ontology-based applications with automated reasoning capabilities. It is argued that a distinction may be drawn between human intelligence and component capabilities within a more general(More)
Activins C and E (homodimers of the betaC and betaE subunits), which are almost exclusively expressed in the liver, are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily of growth factors. We examined their expression in three different hepatoma cell lines and found that, compared with normal liver or primary hepatocytes, human(More)