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Many neurological insults are accompanied by a marked acute inflammatory reaction, involving the activation of microglia. Using a model of exogenous application of fluorescence-labeled BV2 microglia in pathophysiologically relevant concentrations onto organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, we investigated the specific effects of microglia on neuronal(More)
Cell-type plasticity within a tumor has recently been suggested to cause a bidirectional conversion between tumor-initiating stem cells and nonstem cells triggered by an inflammatory stroma. NF-κB represents a key transcription factor within the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. However, NF-κB's function in tumor-initiating cells has not been examined(More)
Microglial cells maintain the immunological integrity of the healthy brain and can exert protection from traumatic injury. During ischemic tissue damage such as stroke, peripheral immune cells acutely infiltrate the brain and may exacerbate neurodegeneration. Whether and how microglia can protect from this insult is unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AP4/TFAP4/AP-4 is encoded by a c-MYC target gene and displays up-regulation concomitantly with c-MYC in colorectal cancer (CRC) and numerous other tumor types. Here a genome-wide characterization of AP4 DNA binding and mRNA expression was performed using a combination of microarray, genome-wide chromatin(More)
BACKGROUND The transcription factor SOX2, which is involved in the induction of pluripotent stem cells and contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis, is associated with a poor prognosis in colon cancer (CC). Furthermore, SOX2 is a repressor of the transcriptional activity of β-catenin in vitro. Since the majority of CC develop via an activation of the(More)
Neuronal injury from ischemic stroke is aggravated by invading peripheral immune cells. Early infiltrates of neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells influence the outcome of stroke. So far, however, neither the timing nor the cellular dynamics of neutrophil entry, its consequences for the invaded brain area, or the relative importance of T-cells has been(More)
Integrating physical and virtual environments has been shown to improve usability of Virtual Reality (VR) applications. Objects within these mixed realities (MR [1]) can be hybrid physical/virtual objects that are physically manipulatable and have flexible shape and texture. We compare usability of hybrid objects for basic manipulation tasks (rotation,(More)
We describe a 6-DoF (degrees of freedom) force-feedback enabled user interface that supports grasp interaction in mixed or virtual reality environments. The graspable part of the device is interchangeable. It can hold physical grips, tubes, work pieces and tools which provide passive haptic feedback, up to tangible user interfaces. The device is prepared to(More)
Selected results of the DLR Project SikMa-"Simulation of Complex Maneuvers" are presented. The objective of the SikMa Project is to develop and validate a numerical tool to simulate the unsteady aerodynamics of a free flying aeroelastic combat aircraft, by use of coupled aerodynamic, flight mechanics and aeroelastic computations. To achieve this objective,(More)
We determined whether active PI3K signaling together with nuclear accumulation of β-Catenin is necessary to fully activate canonical WNT signaling and examined the association of both signaling pathways with colon cancer progression. Using reporter gene assays we examined the activation of β-Catenin mediated transcription upon PI3K inhibition with or(More)