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BACKGROUND There is a pressing clinical requirement for an early simple test of severity in acute pancreatitis. We investigated the use of an assay of trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP). METHODS We undertook a multicentre study in 246 patients (172 with acute pancreatitis [35 with severe disease], 74 controls). We assessed the predictive value of(More)
The Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper age individual, was discovered in 1991 on the Tisenjoch Pass in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the Iceman and show 100% concordance between the previously reported mitochondrial genome sequence and the consensus sequence generated from our genomic data. We(More)
BACKGROUND Infection of pancreatic necrosis has a major impact on clinical course, management, and outcome in acute pancreatitis. Currently, guided fine needle aspiration is the only means for an early and accurate diagnosis of infected necrosis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a 116 amino acid propeptide of calcitonin, and interleukin 8 (IL-8), a strong neutrophil(More)
The genomes of vertebrates contain sequences that are similar to present-day exogenous retroviruses. Such sequences, called endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), have resulted from ancestral germ line infections by exogenous retroviruses which have thereafter been transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. By analogy to exogenous tumorigenic retroviruses, ERVs have been(More)
A significant proportion of the human genome consists of stably inherited retroviral sequences. Most human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) became defective over time. The HERV-K(HML-2) family is exceptional because of its coding capacity and the possible involvement in germ cell tumor (GCT) development. HERV-K(HML-2) transcription is strongly upregulated in(More)
Primates emerged about 60 million years ago. Since that time various primate-targeting retroviruses have integrated in the germ line of primate species, and some drifted to fixation. After germ line fixation, continued activity of proviruses resulted in intragenomic spread of so-called endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Variant ERVs emerged, amplified in the(More)
Mycophenolate drug levels are decreased by co-administration of cyclosporine. However, mycophenolate levels may be associated with insufficient immunosuppression. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of 720 mg mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity under co-medication with cyclosporine and steroids within the(More)
In several vertebrate species, Borna disease virus (BDV), the prototype of a new group of animal viruses, causes central nervous system disease accompanied by diverse behavioral abnormalities. Seroepidemiological data indicate that BDV may contribute to the pathophysiology of certain human mental disorders. This hypothesis is further supported by the(More)
BACKGROUND A significant proportion of the human genome is comprised of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). HERV transcripts are found in every human tissue. Expression of proviruses of the HERV-K(HML-2) family has been associated with development of human tumors, in particular germ cell tumors (GCT). Very little is known about transcriptional activity(More)
The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is involved in cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation of many epithelial cell types. We have recently shown that Northern blot analysis of RNA from adult mouse testis revealed multiple Klf4 transcripts. In order to characterize these transcripts, we tested for alternative splicing events and(More)