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Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic aggregates of stalled translational preinitiation complexes that accumulate during stress. GW bodies/processing bodies (PBs) are distinct cytoplasmic sites of mRNA degradation. In this study, we show that SGs and PBs are spatially, compositionally, and functionally linked. SGs and PBs are induced by stress, but SG(More)
In mammalian cells, splice junctions play a dual role in mRNA quality control: They mediate selective nuclear export of mature mRNA and they serve as a mark for mRNA surveillance, which subjects aberrant mRNAs with premature termination codons to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Here, we demonstrate that the protein RNPS1, a component of the postsplicing(More)
Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) rids eukaryotic cells of aberrant mRNAs containing premature termination codons. These are discriminated from true termination codons by downstream cis-elements, such as exon-exon junctions. We describe three novel human proteins involved in NMD, hUpf2, hUpf3a, and hUpf3b. While in HeLa cell extracts these proteins are(More)
The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway subjects mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) to rapid decay. The conserved Upf1-3 complex interacts with the eukaryotic translation release factors, eRF3 and eRF1, and triggers NMD when translation termination takes place at a PTC. Contrasting models postulate central roles in PTC-recognition for the exon(More)
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) that exhibit multiple attachments to the 5' UTR from(More)
Decapping is a key step in mRNA turnover. However, the composition and regulation of the human decapping complex is poorly understood. Here, we identify three proteins that exist in complex with the decapping enzyme subunits hDcp2 and hDcp1: hEdc3, Rck/p54, and a protein in decapping we name Hedls. Hedls is important in decapping because it enhances the(More)
In human cells, a critical pathway in gene regulation subjects mRNAs with AU-rich elements (AREs) to rapid decay by a poorly understood process. AREs have been shown to directly activate deadenylation, decapping, or 3'-to-5' exonucleolytic decay. We demonstrate that enzymes involved in all three of these mRNA decay processes, as well as 5'-to-3'(More)
Decapping is a key step in general and regulated mRNA decay. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae it constitutes a rate-limiting step in the nonsense-mediated decay pathway that rids cells of mRNAs containing premature termination codons. Here two human decapping enzymes are identified, hDcp1a and hDcp2, as well as a homolog of hDcp1a, termed hDcp1b. Transiently(More)
In eukaryotes, an elaborate set of mechanisms has evolved to ensure that the multistep process of gene expression is accurately executed and adapted to cellular needs. The mRNA surveillance pathway works in this context by assessing the quality of mRNAs to ensure that they are suitable for translation. mRNA surveillance facilitates the detection and(More)
mRNA decapping is a critical step in eukaryotic cytoplasmic mRNA turnover. Cytoplasmic mRNA decapping is catalyzed by Dcp2 in conjunction with its coactivator Dcp1 and is stimulated by decapping enhancer proteins. mRNAs associated with the decapping machinery can assemble into cytoplasmic mRNP granules called processing bodies (PBs). Evidence suggests that(More)