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Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic aggregates of stalled translational preinitiation complexes that accumulate during stress. GW bodies/processing bodies (PBs) are distinct cytoplasmic sites of mRNA degradation. In this study, we show that SGs and PBs are spatially, compositionally, and functionally linked. SGs and PBs are induced by stress, but SG(More)
In mammalian cells, splice junctions play a dual role in mRNA quality control: They mediate selective nuclear export of mature mRNA and they serve as a mark for mRNA surveillance, which subjects aberrant mRNAs with premature termination codons to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Here, we demonstrate that the protein RNPS1, a component of the postsplicing(More)
Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) rids eukaryotic cells of aberrant mRNAs containing premature termination codons. These are discriminated from true termination codons by downstream cis-elements, such as exon-exon junctions. We describe three novel human proteins involved in NMD, hUpf2, hUpf3a, and hUpf3b. While in HeLa cell extracts these proteins are(More)
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) that exhibit multiple attachments to the 5' UTR from(More)
The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway subjects mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) to rapid decay. The conserved Upf1-3 complex interacts with the eukaryotic translation release factors, eRF3 and eRF1, and triggers NMD when translation termination takes place at a PTC. Contrasting models postulate central roles in PTC-recognition for the exon(More)
Decapping is a key step in mRNA turnover. However, the composition and regulation of the human decapping complex is poorly understood. Here, we identify three proteins that exist in complex with the decapping enzyme subunits hDcp2 and hDcp1: hEdc3, Rck/p54, and a protein in decapping we name Hedls. Hedls is important in decapping because it enhances the(More)
We report a function of human mRNA decapping factors in control of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Decapping proteins Edc3, Dcp1a, and Dcp2 and the termination factor TTF2 coimmunoprecipitate with Xrn2, the nuclear 5'-3' exonuclease "torpedo" that facilitates transcription termination at the 3' ends of genes. Dcp1a, Xrn2, and TTF2 localize near(More)
Decapping is a key step in general and regulated mRNA decay. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae it constitutes a rate-limiting step in the nonsense-mediated decay pathway that rids cells of mRNAs containing premature termination codons. Here two human decapping enzymes are identified, hDcp1a and hDcp2, as well as a homolog of hDcp1a, termed hDcp1b. Transiently(More)
In human cells, a critical pathway in gene regulation subjects mRNAs with AU-rich elements (AREs) to rapid decay by a poorly understood process. AREs have been shown to directly activate deadenylation, decapping, or 3'-to-5' exonucleolytic decay. We demonstrate that enzymes involved in all three of these mRNA decay processes, as well as 5'-to-3'(More)
In mammalian cells, mRNAs with AU-rich elements (AREs) are targeted for translational silencing and rapid degradation. Here we present evidence that in human cells the proteins Tristetraprolin (TTP) and BRF-1 deliver ARE-mRNAs to processing bodies (PBs), cytoplasmic assemblies of mRNAs, and associated factors that promote translational silencing and mRNA(More)