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Electromigration due to insufficient wire width can cause the premature failure of a circuit. The ongoing reduction of circuit feature sizes has aggravated the problem over the last couple of years, especially with analog circuits. It is therefore an important reliability issue to consider current densities already in the physical design stage. We present a(More)
The island model genetic algorithm shows promise as a superior formulation based on considerations from theories of natural evolution and from the efficiencies of coarsegrained parallel computer architectures. The theory of punctuated equilibria calls for the population to be partitioned into several distinct subpopulations. These subpopulations have(More)
The electromigration effect within current-density-stressed signal and power lines is an ubiquitous and increasingly important reliability and design problem in sub-micron IC designs. It is therefore necessary to consider electromigration-related design parameters as early as possible in the physical design flow. In this tutorial, we first give an(More)
Electromigration is increasingly relevant to the physical design of electronic circuits. It is caused by excessive current density stress in the interconnect. The ongoing reduction of circuit feature sizes has aggravated the problem over the last couple of years. It is therefore an important reliability issue to consider electromigration-related design(More)
Interconnect with an insufficient width may be subject to electromigration and eventually cause the failure of the circuit at any time during its lifetime. This problem has gotten worse over the last couple of years due to the ongoing reduction of circuit feature sizes. For this reason, it is becoming crucial to address the problems of current densities and(More)
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are materials with great potential for development of active functionalities in fluidics and micro-fluidics. Based on the current state of research on pH sensors, hydrogel sensors are described qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time. The review introduces the physical background of the special properties of(More)
A new genetic algoriihm for channel routing in $he physical design process of L'LSI circtiis i5 pres t s fed . The algorithm is bused on a problem specific represeniadion scheme and problem speciJc genetic operators. The genei ic encoding and our genelic operators are descrabed in defoii. The performance of . the algoriihnt i s tested on difleerrnl(More)
Electromigration is caused by high current-density stress in the metallization patterns and is a major source of breakdown in electronic devices. It is, therefore, an important reliability issue to verify current densities within all stressed metallization patterns. In this paper, we propose an efficient methodology for hierarchical verification of current(More)
The wiring effort and thus, the routability of electronic designs such as printed circuit boards, multi chip modules and single chip modules largely depends on the assignment of signals to component pins. For modern components that have as many as several thousand pins, this pin assignment cannot be optimized manually. This paper presents four novel pin(More)